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Pesachim 44

1) [line 6] MIKPAH - a stiff porridge

(a) The Torah specifies a Shi'ur for which a person who eats this amount (a k'Zayis) of a prohibited food item is liable to Malkos. Similarly, the Torah also specifies the amount of time in which the Isur must be eaten in order to be liable. This amount of time is called "Kedei Achilas Peras," and is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three - or four - Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from Malkos, exactly as if he ate a Chatzi Shi'ur (Kerisus 12b).
(b) This amount of time applies not only to when the Isur is eaten all by itself, but also when it is eaten in a mixture. If a person eats a k'Zayis of the Isur within the amount of time that it takes to eat a Peras of the entire mixture, he is liable to Malkos (Pesachim 44a, Avodah Zarah 67a). This rule also applies to a mixture in which the *taste* of the Isur is absorbed in the Heter. If the Isur lends a "strong" taste to the Heter as if there were a k'Zayis of Isur mixed in, eating a k'Zayis bi'Chedei Achilas Peras of the mixture incurs Malkos (MILCHAMOS HASH-M ibid.)
(c) The Rishonim argue in the case where an item of Isur that lends its taste to an item of Heter does not have a Shi'ur of k'Zayis bi'Chedei Achilas Peras. Some rule that eating a k'Zayis of this mixture also incurs Malkos, while others rule to the contrary. The latter opinion branches off to those Rishonim who rule that the prohibition is nevertheless a Lav of the Torah, and those who rule that the prohibition is an Aseh (TOSFOS Chulin at the top of 99a). RASHI (Pesachim 45a DH v'Rebbi Akiva) rules that the prohibition is only mid'Rabanan, according to many Tana'im. Other Rishonim feel that this Halachah is dependant upon a Tana'ic argument.

*3*) [line 18] ELA MAI, MISHUM D'HETER MITZTAREF L'ISUR? SOF SOF, AMAI PELIGI RABANAN ... - that is, if the Rabanan of the previous Beraisa do not side that one is Chayav for eating k'Zayis b'Chedei Achilas Peras, than our question retures: why does the area of the spicy porridge that the Tamei touches become Tamei? It must be that the Rabanan hold that Heter Mitztaref l'Isur, and that is why the porridge can become Tamei -- the non-Terumah spices can combine with the rest of the porridge to be considered Terumah. But if so, why do they argue with Rebbi Eliezer in our Mishnah; let them agree that one gets Malkus for eating Kutach since the globs of Chametz in it, when combined with the Heter, equal a k'Zayis! (This appears to be Rashi's understanding of the Sugya. TOSFOS DH Ela erases these words from the Gemara, though.)

4) [line 21] D'LEIS BEI K'ZAYIS BI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PERAS - that is, it is not normally eaten in a fashion that one consumes a k'Zayis bi'Chedei Achilas Peras

5) [line 22] D'KASARIF V'ACHIL LEI - that he eats it by swallowing it
6) [line 23] V'IY MISHTAR KA'SHATAR V'ACHIL - if he eats it by dipping his bread into it
7) [line 26] MEDUCHOS - mortars containing ground spices


8) [line 1] TA'AM K'IKAR (The flavor of the food is considered like the essence of the food)
An item of food that is prohibited to eat that has given its flavor to another item of food or drink in which it was mixed, causes the entire mixture to become prohibited (i.e. it is not Batel b'Rov). (See Insights to Pesachim Daf 44)

9) [line 13] D'AF AL GAV D'TA'AROVES - even though the wine is absorbed in the bread (and he is not drinking the wine by itself)

10) [line 22] TARU LEI - the meat is soaked in milk
11) [line 25] GI'ULEI NACHRIM - the prohibition to use vessels of non-Jews (without Kashering) because the non-kosher food that they absorbed will be expelled into the food that is cooked in them (Bamidbar 31:21-24)

12) [line 30] KEDEIRAH BAS YOMA - a pot that was used to cook non-kosher food that same day

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