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Pesachim 34

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 34b DH uv'Ba'alim:
The words "Ho'il v'Eino *ka'Basar* Atzmo"
should be "Ho'il v'Eino *ba'Basar* Atzmo"

[2] Rashi 34b DH I Amart Bishlema:
The words "Chashvinan Lei Pesul Chesron Mechitzos"
should be "d'Chashvinan Lei k'Pesul Chesron Mechitzos"
(see Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz)

1) [line 1] SHELIKASA U'ME'ISASA - kernels of wheat which are boiled and made loathsome (by being thrown between pieces of wood)

2) [line 4] GABAL - a person who kneads dough
*3*) [line 5] B'CHITIN SHEL TERUMAH TEME'AH - they were using Terumah Teme'ah as fuel when preparing food for *Kohanim* (Tosfos DH Mechamin)

4a) [line 8] TANU TERUMOS - learned Maseches Terumos
*b*) [line 8] TANU TERUMOS BEI RABAH - (The Gemara goes into this discussion here because it deals with Terumah Teme'ah, and it is eventually pertinent to the topic of squeezing grapejuice less than a Shi'ur at a time.)

5) [line 11] SHESILEI TERUMOS - plants of Terumah (such as cabbage and leeks)
6a) [line 16] GIDULEI TERUMAH - the increase in growth of *old* leaves and shoots of planted Terumah
b) [line 17] GIDULEI GIDULIN - entirely *new* shoots and leaves that grew out of planted Terumah

7) [line 18] DAVAR SHE'EIN ZAR'O KALAH - a plant which contains a regenerative root or bulb, e.g. scallions (O.F. civot)

8) [line 24] HESECH HA'DA'AS - removal of his attention from it
9a) [line 25] PESUL HA'GUF - (a) Hesech ha'Da'as is a disqualification in its own right, which has nothing to do with whether the food is actually Tamei (RASHI); (b) the Pesul of Hesech ha'Da'as is an intrinsic Pesul similar to the Pesul of a non-kosher piece of meat (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)
b) [line 26] PESUL TUM'AH - (a) a disqualification due to the possibility that the food was touched by Tum'ah (RASHI); (b) the Pesul of Hesech ha'Da'as is an extrinsic Pesul (ARUCH)

10) [line 34] LUL KATAN - (a) a small pit (RASHI); (b) a small shaft (RABEINU CHANANEL)
11) [line 34] BEIN KEVESH LA'MIZBE'ACH, B'MA'ARAVO SHEL KEVESH - (a) in the floor next to the ramp, near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, at the point where the ramp meets the Mizbe'ach (RASHI); (b) in the western wall of the ramp, near the upper edge of the ramp, at the point where the ramp meets the Mizbe'ach (TIFERES YISRAEL)

12) [line 36] CHATAS HA'OF
The offering of the Chatas ha'Of consisted of three procedures:

1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen would cut the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen would sprinkle its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that divided the Mizbe'ach in half.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen would press the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeeze its blood onto the Mizbe'ach. The Chatas ha'Of was then eaten by the Kohanim.
13) [line 36] TE'UBAR TZURASAN (NOSAR)
Literally, this means we let their appearance become disfigured (by beginning to decay), i.e. we wait for the night to pass so that they will become "Nosar" and Pasul for the Mizbe'ach.


14) [line 4] PIGUL
(a) A sacrifice that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it after its allotted time becomes disqualified. Such a Korban is forbidden to be eaten as it states in Vayikra (7:18) "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, *Pigul* Yiheyeh." - ("If [the person bringing the offering plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor.")
(b) If a person eats Pigul intentionally he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)

15) [line 5] SHE'YATZA CHUTZ LA'KELA'IM - its flesh (of a Korban that is Kodshei Kodshim) went out of the Azarah (which corresponded to the *curtains* of the Mishkan)

(a) Tum'ah renders Korbanos unfit for Hakravah. Therefore, if the *blood* of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is cast on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam. Similarly, Rebbi Yehoshua rules that if all of the *meat and Chelev* of a Korban becomes Tamei before Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). In addition, if the *Eimurim* or parts of a Korban that are to be offered on the Mizbe'ach, become Teme'im even after Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to offer them afterwards.
(b) However, all these laws apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen did Zerikas ha'Dam b'Tum'ah and the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz at the time, the Tzitz makes the Kohen's Avodah acceptable. The Korban may be eaten and the owner has fulfilled his obligation. This Halachah is learned from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m." (Shemos 28:38). However, if the meat becomes Tamei, the Tzitz does not render it fit to be *eaten*.
(c) Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not need the Tzitz to render them acceptable. If they become Teme'im through one of the above-mentioned Tum'os, they may be offered l'Chatchilah. Also, if the Kohanim are all Teme'im, they may offer Korbanos l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, even thought they were offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which is a Korban Tzibur that may be offered b'Tum'ah and also eaten b'Tum'ah).

17) [line 10] TZITZ - the thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Sh-m", worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38)

18) [line 14] BAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI - foolish Babylonians
19) [line 14] B'AR'A D'CHASHOCHA - in a dark land. Bavel is called a dark land because it is situated in a large valley

One of the Mitzvos of the holiday of Sukkos in the Beis ha'Mikdash is the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation that is offered on the Mizbe'ach). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the Temple Mount. The water is brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession, to fulfill the Pasuk "u'Sh'avtem Mayim b'Sason ..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing ..." - Yeshayah 12:3). The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). This takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice, amidst much rejoicing.

21) [line 17] HISHIKAN (HASHAKAH)
When water (or snow) that is Tamei is merely touched to the water of a Mikvah, it becomes connected to the water of the Mikvah and it is considered Mechubar, attached to the ground. This makes it Tahor, since anything attached to the ground is Tahor.

22) [line 17] ZERI'AH NINHU - it makes the water Tahor because it is considered comparable to planting it in the ground

23) [line 21] MA'ALAH - a special degree of sanctity
24) [last line] SHE'TEHEI CHIYUSAN BA'KELI - (a) the fresh spring water should be drawn directly in the utensil in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (see Background to Pesachim 17:10) (RASHI); (b) the fresh spring water should be drawn in *a* utensil, not necessarily the one in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (RASH to Parah 9:3 - see Insights)

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