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Pesachim 28

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 28a [line 7]:
The words "Kapa *d'Chata* Nagara b'Gavah"
should be "Kapa *d'Chat* Nagara b'Gavah" (Rashi in all early printings,
Rabeinu Chananel, Aruch)
or "Kapa *d'Chak* Nagara b'Gavah" (the Oxford manuscript)

[2] Gemara 28a [line 9]:
The words "*Gira b'Girei* Maktil"
should be "*Gira'ah b'Gireih* (with a 'Heh' at the end) Maktil" (early printings)

1) [line 3] ASHAM TALUY
(a) An Asham Taluy consists of a ram worth two Sela'im, that is offered when a person is in doubt as to whether he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas. If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas. The Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.
(b) If the person discovers after his Korban was slaughtered that he indeed *did not* need to bring a Korban since he did not sin, the Tana'im argue as to how the ram is disposed of. According to Chachamim, it is burned. According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is buried.

(a) It is prohibited to offer an animal as a sacrifice when its obligation is in question, since it is possible that we will be slaughtering, offering or eating Chulin ba'Azarah.
(b) Unlike other Korbanos, a Chatas ha'Of is not slaughtered nor is it offered on the Mizbe'ach. Instead, Melikah is performed upon it and its blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach. Therefore it may be offered even when its obligation is not certain, but it is not eaten. For example, if it is unclear whether a woman gave birth to a fully formed child or not, she may bring a bird as a Chatas in order to permit her to eat Kodshim. The bird, however, is not eaten.
(c) Rabanan rule that the Chatas ha'Of ha'Ba Al ha'Safek is burned, while Rebbi Yehudah rules Yatilenah la'Amah - he should throw it into the channel of water that was an Amah wide, which passed through the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and emptied into Nachal Kidron.

3a) [line 7] KAPA (D'CHATA) [D'CHAT] NAGARA B'GAVAH - with the wooden ladle that a carpenter hollowed out
b) [line 8] NISROF CHARDELA - (a) he shall burn his tongue and palate with mustard; (b) he will suck in mustard [(O.F. humer) to suck in, swallow while inhaling]

4a) [line 8] SADANA B'SADNEI YESEIV - a maker of wooden stocks (carpenter) who violates the law, sits in his own stocks
b) [line 9] MI'DEVIL YADEI MISHTALIM - he is being paid back with his own handiwork

5) [line 9] (GIRA) [GIRA'A] B'GIREI MIKTIL - the arrow-maker, when he is hunted, is killed by his own arrow

6) [line 14] B'EINEI - as it is
7) [line 15] SHOCHEK - he grinds it
8) [line 19] YAM HA'MELACH - (O.F. mer betee) the Dead Sea
9) [line 22] MIMISAH - dissolve/disintegrate in water
*10*) [line 38] OVER ALAV B'LAV - the discussion here may apply only to the Lav; all agree that Tashbisu, a Mitzvas Aseh, applies before Pesach -- see Insights.


*11*) [line 11] IM KEN, MAH TALMUD LOMAR LO SOCHAL ALAV CHAMETZ - that is, if the word "Alav" with reference to Matzah is referring to the Korban Pesach, then the word "Alav" with reference to Chametz also means to prohibit Chametz only from the time that the Korban Pesach is eaten. (TOSFOS DH Im)

12) [line 19] SHE'NISCHAMETZ ME'ELAV - that it became leavened on its own (by letting it stand without adding any leavening agent)

13) [line 20] MACHMAS DAVAR ACHER - if it became leavened by adding a non- Chametz leavening agent (such as wine lees) (TOSFOS)

*13*) [line 34] SHAPIR KA'AMAR LEI REBBI SHIMON - that is, why doesn't Rebbi Yehudah compare Chametz to Matzah, like Rebbi Shimon suggested in the Beraisa.

14) [line 35] L'KOV'O CHOVAH - to establish it as an obligation even when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash and no Korban Pesach

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