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Pesachim 23

PESACHIM 23 - has been sponsored by a donation from Mr. Morris Smith of Yerushalayim

(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or *place of Shevisah* for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c) The food used for an Eruv Techumin may even be food that the person himself may not eat, such as wine for a Nazir and Terumah for a non-Kohen. RASHI (Eruvin 26b) and TOSFOS (here, DH Me'arvin) explain that even though it is unfit for this person, it is still useful as the "food" for an Eruv Techumin, since it can be eaten by someone else. (RASHI here, DH Me'arvin, explains that the food *is* edible to the person himself, since a Nazir can annul his vow of Nezirus, and the person who declared the produce Terumah may also repeal his declaration.)

2) [line 12] NAZIR
If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, he is not allowed to: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of the grapevine.

3) [line 16] GIDULO KADOSH - his hair that grows is holy and is Asur b'Hana'ah

4) [line 19] CHADASH
(a) Chadash is any grain that has not begun to take root until after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until next year's Korban ha'Omer is brought (or when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, until the day that it would have been brought), as it states in Vayikra 23:14 ("v'Lechem v'Kali v'Charmel Lo Sochlu ...").
(b) Many Rishonim rule that the prohibition of Chadash applies mid'Oraisa even in Chutz la'Aretz.

5) [line 19] KALI - roasted grain
6) [line 19] KARMEL - fresh/soft grain
7a) [line 20] KOTZER L'SHACHAS - one may cut grain in its earliest stage of growth (which is used as animal fodder)
b) [line 21] U'MA'ACHIL LI'VEHEMAH - and one may feed an animal grain which one has picked by hand

8) [line 39] NACHRI SHE'KIBASHTO - a non-Jew whom you conquered and is under your jurisdiction
9) [line 46] LI'MELECHES GAVO'AH - for a Heavenly task, i.e. for the Beis ha'Mikdash


10) [line 10] GIDAH - its Gid ha'Nasheh
11) [line 23] V'SHANINHU - (a) and Rebbi Avahu answered them (RASHI); (b) and Rebbi Avahu and Chizkiyah answered them (RABEINU CHANANEL)

12) [line 29] LO YE'ACHEL, LIM'UTEI HANEI - Whenever the verse states "Lo Ye'achel" such as in the cases of Chametz on Pesach and Shor ha'Niskal, it is forbidden to derive benefit from the object as well, as we learn from the verse discussing Sheratzim (Daf 23a)

13) [line 44] "[V']CHOL CHATAS ASHER YUVA MI'DAMAH EL OHEL MO'ED L'CHAPER BA'KODESH YO SE'ACHEL; BA'ESH TISAREF" - "Any sin offering whose blood is brought into the Ohel Mo'ed to make atonement in the sanctuary may not be eaten; it must be burned in fire." (Vayikra 6:23)

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