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Pesachim 20

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 20b [line 28]:
The word "*v'Sachteha* Chulin Teme'in"
should be "*u'va'Tachtonah* Chulin Teme'in" (Dikdukei Sofrim #5;
this is the Girsa in the Oxford Manuscript)

*1*) [line 2] V'HA'BASAR TAMEI - The Gemara here is referring back to the Mishnah in Eduyos cited at the end of 19a, and is continuing to explain it.

(a) Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with either of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was *pleased* that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." ("If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei.") The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.

3) [line 11] CHIBAS HA'KODESH (The Endearment Of Kodesh)
(a) The more precious an object is, the more it is guarded. It is therefore required that we guard Kodesh from Tum'ah more stringently than we guard Chulin or Terumah. For this reason, Kodesh can become Tamei even if it has never come in contact with a liquid and was not Huchshar.
(b) Likewise, even Kodesh items that are inedible (such as the wood for the Mizbe'ach and Levonah -- frankincense) can become Tamei as if they were foods.
(c) According to RASHI (19a DH Alma) this Tum'ah of wood and frankincense of Hekdesh is only mid'Rabanan, while according to TOSFOS (ibid. DH Alma; Chulin 35a DH Ein), this Tum'ah is mid'Oraisa (see Insights to Daf Pesachim 19a, 20a).

4) [line 14] TZERID SHEL MENACHOS - the dry part of a Minchah offering that did not become permeated with oil

5) [line 17] MASHKEH TOFE'ACH - dripping liquid
6) [line 21] MASHKEH SARU'ACH - spoiled smelly liquid
7) [line 24] GOZ - cut out, remove
8) [line 26] NIZYASA - barrels used for brewing beer; (first the Kelim (barrels) are brought, then the Ochel (barley), and then the Mashkeh (water)


9) [line 23] MEKOM HA'TURFAH - an exposed and unprotected place
10) [line 24] MEKOM HA'MUTZNA - a hidden, concealed places
11a) [line 28] GAS HA'ELYONAH - the upper part of the wine-press; the vat in which the grapes are placed [(O.F. mait) tub] (RASHI 15a)
b) [line 28] (V'SACHTEHA) [U'VA'TACHTONAH] - the lower part of the wine- press; the pit which collects the juice

12) [line 36] L'ZILUF - for sprinkling on the ground (which the gives the house a pleasant fragrance)

13) [line 37] LAV MILSA HI - is not a significant use of the wine
14) [line 38] CHADASH - wine which was recently pressed which has no fragrance

15) [line 41] TISHAFECH CHAVAL - it must all be poured out together; [alt., TISHAFECH HA'KOL (RABEINU CHANANEL; Bava Kama 116a) or TISHAFECH HEVEL - it must all be poured out immediately (ARUCH)]

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