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Pesachim 19

1) [line 5] D'LO LISHTAMIT TANA V'LISNI - a Tana should not escape/refrain from teaching

2) [line 8] DAK V'ASKACH - examined the Mishnayos and found

3) [line 9] METZAREF
When a source of Tum'ah touches an item of Kodshim that is in a utensil that contains other items of Kodshim that are not touching each other, the utensil causes the Tum'ah to spread to all of the items as if they were touching each other. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avos ha'Tumah 12:7)

4) [line 14] LEVONAH - frankincense (or oliban), a handful of which was placed on top of a Minchah (meal-offering), and which was later offered on the Mizbe'ach.

*5*) [line 20] TENAN HASAM, AL MACHAT SHE'NIMTZA B'VASAR - At this point, the Gemara will begin an in-depth discussion of a Mishnah in Eduyos. Although the Mishnah is not from our Maseches, nevertheless, in Eduyos *our* Mishnah (14b) is cited as one of Rebbi Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim's testimonies, and the law of finding a needle in the flesh of a Korban is another of his testimonies. In addition, both testimonies involve intricate laws of Tum'ah and Taharah. For this reason, the Gemara discusses Rebbi Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim's second testimony here in detail.

6) [line 22] PERESH - excrement (found in the entrails of the slaughtered animal)

*7*) [last line] SHE'EIN TUM'AS YADAYIM BA'MIKDASH - that is, normally the Rabanan decreed that when a person touches a Rishon l'Tum'ah, his hands become Sheni l'Tum'ah. This is referred to here as "Tum'as Yadayim." In the Mikdash, this was not enacted. (TOSFOS DH she'Ein)


*8*) [line 1] V'NEIMA SHE'EIN TUM'AS YADAYIM V'CHELIM BA'MIKDASH - that is, at this point the Gemara thinks that there were liquids on the meat that had the needle. The needle should make the liquids a Rishon, and enable them to be Metamei utensils (especially since Rebbi Akiva is mentioned in this Mishnah, and he is of the opinion that liquids can make utensils Tamei mid'Oraisa, TOSFOS DH v'Neima).

*9*) [line 7] D'AFILU B'CHULIN NAMI, LO METAMEI - that is, the case of the Mishnah is when there were *no* liquids on the meat that could have been made Tamei by the needle.

10) [line 12] LO GAZRU AL SAFEK HA'RUKIN B'YERUSHALAYIM - the Chachamim did not decree that spit found in the streets of Yerushalayim should be Tamei. We are not concerned that it may have come from a Zav, Zavah, or Nidah, in which case the spit is an Av ha'Tum'ah, because they are the minority. Although the Chachamim considered spit that is found in other areas besides Yerushalayim to be Tamei, in Yerushalayim they did not decree it to be Tamei since Kodshim were eaten in Yerushalayim, and people living there who were Tamei were careful not to make others Tamei.

11) [line 16] SHE'HAYESAH PARAH CHASUMAH VA'VA'AH - the cow was muzzled since before it came into Yerushalayim (and the cow swallowed the needle outside of Yerushalayim where the Chachamim decreed that a Keli which is found is Tamei)

12) [line 22] SHUK HA'ELYON - the upper market, where people who were Tamei would congregate

13) [line 27] GAZYASA - narrow passageways that open up to the paths that go up and down to the Beis ha'Tevilah

14) [line 30] CHEREV HAREI HU K'CHALAL (a sword is like the corpse)
(a) Any metal utensil that touched a dead body is given the same level of Tum'ah as the dead body, i.e. it becomes an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah. Similarly, if a metal utensil touched an Av ha'Tum'ah, it becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah. (A Rishon or Sheni l'Tumah cannot make utensils Tamei.)
(b) According to some Rishonim, this law applies to non-metal utensils as well -- see Insights to Pesachim 14b.

*15*) [line 31] ZOS OMERES, AZARAH RESHUS HA'RABIM HI - that is, the person and the knife did not *definitely* touch the needle. Rather, a *doubt* was raised that they may have touched the needle.

(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.
(b) This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman (Bamidbar 5; see Background to Eruvin 58:10). In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were about at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of an object it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of an object it is judged to be Tahor.

(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei (see previous entry).
(b) This Halachah applies only if the object that transfers the Tum'ah or the object that receives the Tum'ah is a Ben Da'as (i.e. has intelligence). If there is a doubt as to whether an object that was Tamei touched another object that was Tahor and no human was involved, the object that was Tahor remains so (since this case cannot be compared to the case of the Sotah woman, in which Bnei Da'as were involved).
(c) Our Sugya concludes that if a question arises regarding two objects, one Tamei and the other Tahor, which a *person* brings together, this is considered a question involving a Yesh Bo Da's li'Sha'el and it is judged to be Tamei in Reshus ha'Yachid.

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