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Pesachim 3

1) [line 1] HA'MAPELES - a woman who miscarries

(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two terms: (1) During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this term lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this term lasts for two weeks. At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah. (2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this term, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This term lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two terms, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

3) [line 4] IM SHIVAH - if it is the same

5) [line 12] NOSAR
(a) If any meat of an animal of Kodshim remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as it states in Vayikra (19:6) "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel u'mi'Macharas, *v'ha'Nosar* Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - ("It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that *remains* until the third day shall be burned in fire.")
(b) If someone eats Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares, as it states (ibid. 19:8) "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa ... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha." - ("... anyone who eats it shall bear his iniquity ... and that soul will be cut off from his nation.") If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215)

Me'ein Shemonah Asar refers to "Havineinu", a shortened version of the daily Shemoneh Esrei prayer. The first three and last three blessings remain the same. The thirteen blessings which are requests are condensed into one blessing which ends in Shome'a Tefilah (Berachos Daf 29a). It was used mostly by travelers who were forced to pray on the road, when there was no life-threatening danger. There is a difference of opinion as to whether it was abolished or may still be used.

7) [line 30] IKEM - twisted, added
*8*) [line 31] ASHER EINENAH TEHORAH - Rabeinu Yonah explains that these words were said to Noach. At that time, animals that were Teme'im (the non-Kosher animals) were permitted to be eaten but not to be sacrificed. It was therefore considered disgraceful to degrade those items which serve as food for man by calling them "Teme'im" (SHA'AREI TESHUVAH 3:230).

9) [line 36] "V'SIVCHAR LESHON ARUMIM" - "And you choose the tongue of the crafty." (Iyov 15:5) - This is the translation of RAMBAN and METZUDAS DAVID. RASHI to Iyov and RAV MOSHE KIMCHI translate along the lines of our Gemara, "And you should choose (i.e. it is a Mitzvah to choose -- RASHI here) the words of the wise.

10) [line 36] "V'DA'AS SEFASAI BARUR MILELU" - "And my lips shall utter clear (pure) knowledge." (Iyov 33:3) - The Gemara also interprets this verse as a requirement to speak with wisdom

11) [line 40] BI'ASUSA D'GEMALIM - the fear of falling off the camels


12) [line 1] "V'HI ROCHEVES AL HA'CHAMOR" - "And it was so, as she rode on the donkey, that she came down by the screen of the hill, and behold, David and his men came down toward her, and she met them." (Shmuel I 25:20)

13) [line 13] V'HA ROCHEVES V'YOSHEVES D'CHI HADADI NINHU - but "Rocheves" (riding) which the Pasuk used and "Yosheves" (sitting) which the Pasuk could have used instead, have the same number of letters!?

14) [line 16] SHEVISINAN HAI SHEMA'ATA K'DAVAR ACHER MESANKAN - (a) this lesson left us as exhausted as a tired pig (RASHI); (b) this lesson sated us and filled us up like a fat pig (RABEINU CHANANEL)

15) [line 18] ISHTA'I - speak
16a) [line 22] BOTZRIN - to pick grapes
b) [line 22] EIN MOSKIN - to not pick olives
17) [line 27] HIGI'ANI K'FOL - I received of the Lechem ha'Panim an amount the size of a bean

18) [line 28] ZANAV HA'LETA'AH - a lizard's tail
19) [line 29] SHEMETZ PESUL - a blemish of descent, a Chalal
20) [line 30] EIN BODKIN MIN HA'MIZBE'ACH UL'MA'ALAH - (lit. we do not check from the Mizbe'ach and above) If a Kohen has been performing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, his lineage is not questioned

21) [line 31] SHACHATZ PESUL - haughtiness, which invalidates him for divine service

22) [line 32] IHU D'ARA NAFSHEI - he, because of the words that he used, caused a doubt to be cast upon his lineage. This led the authorities to conclude that his right to the priesthood was questionable, requiring further inspection.

23) [line 33] ARAMA'AH - non-Jew
24) [line 35] SHUFREI SHUFREI - the best of the best
25) [line 36] MI KA SAFU LACH ME'ALYAH - do they give you a portion from the (fatty) tail?
26) [line 40] L'GAVO'AH SALIK - is offered up to Heaven
27) [line 45] NETZIVIN - a city in Bavel
28) [line 45] METZUDATECH - your trap
*29*) [line 45] RAV KAHANA CHALASH - (the stories that follow are mentioned here because they demonstrate how careful a person must be to speak properly)

30) [line 47] MAI DINEI - what happened with him, how he is
31) [line 48] V'AHADREI L'KAR'EI LA'ACHOREI - he turned his garment so that the tear in his clothes would be behind him

32) [line 49] ANA LO KA'AMINA - I did not say it
33) [line 49] CHIKOKA'AH - (a) a nickname (RASHI); (b) the scribe (RABEINU CHANANEL); (c) from the Levite city of Chukok in the north of the land of Israel (TOSFOS)

34) [line 49] NAFAK L'KIRYASA - went out to the villages, where his farmlands were, to take care of his fields

35) [line 51] "HA'SE'ORIM V'HA'TEVEN ..." - "They brought barley and straw for the horses ..." (Melachim I 5:8)

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