ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafNidah 49
(a) A 'Gistera' is a broken piece from an earthenware receptacle, that is
still fit to contain liquids.
(b) A vessel that leaks water, but is too
small to let water in, is Kasher for Mei Chatas, but Pasul by a Gistera
(Pasul means that it is no longer considered a vessel as far as receiving
Tum'ah is concerned).
(c) A whole vessel will not lose its status in this
regard unless (depending on its initial size) the hole is at least the size
of a small root. The reason that it remains Kasher is because, when the hole
is so small, people tend to retain it (at least, they did in those days,
before the advent of mass-manufactured vessels), and to use it by placing it
inside a 'Gistera'. A Gistera, however, is Pasul, because people do not
place a Gistera inside another Gistera; but as soon as the hole lets out
water, they tend to throw it away.
(a) According to the Chachamim, one simply places the vessel with a hole
inside another vessel which contains water - if water enters, then we know
that the hole is large enough to let water in, etc.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah
disagrees, on the grounds that sometimes, the pressure caused by the contact
between the bases of the two vessels forces the water to enter, even though
it would have done so naturally - and water entering by artificial means is
not called entering in this regard (the Rabbanan hold that it is) (with the
result that they will declare Tahor a vessel, when really it ought still to
be Tamei). According to Rebbi Yehudah therefore, one would have to place the
holed vessel upside-down into the complete vessel, and then to fill the
complete vessel with water to a point above the hole in the holed one. In
that way, the water will enter naturally should the hole be sufficiently
(a) According to the Chachamim, the fire will stop the water from seeping
through, if the hole is only sufficiently large to let the water *out*, but
if it is large enough to let water *in*, then the fire will not prevent the
water from seeping through.
(b) Rebbi Yossi maintains that the fire will
prevent the water from seeping through, even if the hole is large enough to
let water *in*.
(c) Rebbi Yossi suggests instead, that one places the vessel
with water on burning coals, where the test *will* be effective.
(d) If the
water drips out quickly, drop after drop, then we know that the hole is
large enough to let water in.
(a) A finger which does not have a nail is Metamei through touching and
carrying, but not be'Ohel, whereas if it does, it is Metamei be'Ohel as
(b) The sixth finger is not Metamei be'Ohel only if it is not in line
with the other fingers, and only if it does not contain a Kezayis of flesh .
But if it is in line with the other fingers of the hand, or it contains a
Kezayis of flesh,, then it is Metamei be'Ohel anyway.
(c) A bone the size of
a barley, is Metamei through touching or carrying.
(a)&(b) We learn from "Asher Yeishev Alav ha'Zav", that any vessel which is
not designated for the Zav to sit or lie on, but which one is liable to say
to him 'Get up, and let us do our work with this vessel', is not Metamei
(a) A Mamzer and a convert are Kasher to judge in money-matters, but not in
matters which might result in the death-sentence.
(b) We would not know a
Mamzer from a convert, because a convert is fit to marry a Kasher Jewess,
and that is why he is permitted to judge at least in money-matters, but a
Mamzer, who is unfit to marry a Kasher Jewess, is not permitted to judge in
money-matters either. On the other hand, we could say that a Mamzer, who is
born from a Jewish mother, is Kasher to judge in money-matters, whereas a
convert, who does not, is not. Therefore we also need the Mishnah by