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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nedarim 37


(a) We learned in our Mishnah that the Madir may teach the Mudar Medrash ... , but not Mikra.
Why the difference? How does Shmuel establish the Mishnah?

(b) Under which circumstances would he even be permitted to teach him Mikra, too?

(c) And under which circumstances may one even take money for teaching Medrash ... ?

(a) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Va'eschanan ...
  1. ... "ve'Osi Tzivah Hashem ba'Eis ha'Hi"?
  2. ... "Re'ei Limadti Eschem Chukim u'Mishpatim *Ka'asher Tzivani* Hashem Elokai"?
(b) How do we know that Moshe did not mean to say ...
  1. ... that he should teach them for remuneration?
  2. ... that he was teaching them what Hashem told him to, and not what he himself saw fit to teach them?
(a) According to Rav, the Heter to teach Mikra for remuneration is because the payment is for looking after the Talmidim rather than for the actual teaching.
What does 'looking after' mean?

(b) What does Rebbi Yochanan say?

(c) What practical difference is there between the two explanations?

(d) What is the Halachah?

(a) What do we ask on Rav from the Reisha of our Mishnah, which forbids the Madir to learn T'nach with the Mudar?

(b) We answer that the Reisha is speaking about a Katan.
What is wrong with teaching him (even though it helps the Katan to contravene his Neder by gaining 'S'char Shimur'), seeing as one is not obligated to stop a Katan from sinning ('Katan Ochel Neveilos, Ein Beis-Din Metzuvin Lahafrisho')?

(c) On what grounds do we query this answer?

(d) To answer the Kashya from the Seifa, we amend the Seifa to read '*Im Hayah Gadol*, Melamed Lo u'le'Vanav Mikra'.
Considering that his son needs looking after, why is it permitted to learn with him?

(a) The Beraisa permits learning the second time with children, but not the first, a distinction which is difficult to understand according to Rav ('S'char Shemirah').
Why does it (appear to) conform nicely with Rebbi Yochanan (S'char Pisuk Ta'amim)?

(b) Rav will retort that even the first time should be permitted, even if the remuneration is for Pisuk Ta'amim (so why ask specifically on him and not on Rebbi Yochanan too).
What does this mean? What is Havla'ah?

(a) The Tana of the Beraisa refers to hiring someone to look after a child, a cow or seeds.
What does he mean by ...
  1. ... a child?
  2. ... a cow?
  3. ... seeds?
(b) What distinctions does the Tana make in the above case (as regards remuneration), between whether the man was hired for the Shabbos only or whether he was hired for a week, a month or a year?

(c) The Tana also speaks about a S'chir Shavu'a.
What is a 'S'chir Shavu'a'?

(d) What other difference is there between the man who is hired for Shabbos only, and the one who is hired for an extended period?

Answers to questions



(a) We have just refuted our initial understanding of the Beraisa (that it is forbidden to learn with a child something new because of 'S'char Shabbos'), and go on to ascribe the prohibition to the Mitzvah of participating in Oneg Shabbos together with his father.
Then why the difference between the first time learning and the second?

(b) The second explanation, bases the distinction on a statement of Shmuel. What did Shmuel say about Shabbos meals? How does that explain the difference?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan declines to learn like Rav, because 'daughters do not require looking after'.
Why is that?

(b) How do we know that, when the Tana says 'Aval Lo Yelamdenu Mikra', he is talking about girls?

(c) Some texts present the Kashya as 'Gadol Mi Ba'i Shimur'.
Considering that we have already established the Reisha by a Katan, what is the Kashya?

(d) On what grounds does Rav decline to learn like Rebbi Yochanan?

(a) Rav Ika bar Avin Amar Rav Chananel Amar Rav explains the Pasuk in Nechemyah "Vayikre'u be'Sefer Toras ha'Elokim, Mefurash, Shum Seichel ... ". These three phrases refer to the text of the Chumash, Targum Unkelus and the ends of the Pesukim (see Tosfos and the Rosh) respectively.
Which two things might "Vayavinu be'Mikra" refer to?

(b) Rebbi Yitzchak places Mikra Sofrim, Itur Sofrim, Karyan ve'Lo Kesivan and Kesivan ve'Lo Karyan all in the same category.
What do thay have in common?

(c) What is meant by 'Mikra Sofrim'?

(a) Itur Sofrim refers to "Achar Ta'avoru" (Vayeira)"; "Achar Teilech" (Chayei Sarah); "Achar Te'asef" (Matos); "Kidmu Sharim Achar Nognim" (Tehilim); "Tzidkascha ke'Harerei Keil" (Tehilim).
What is the simple explanation of this ...
  1. ... in all the cases where the word "Achar" appears?
  2. ... in the case of "Tzidkascha ke'Harerei Keil"?
(b) How do others explain it with regard to ...
  1. ... all the cases containing the word "Achar"?
  2. ... "Tzidkascha ke'Harerei Keil"? What is the difference between the two placings of the word "Keil"?
(c) What is the difference between 'Karyan ve'Lo Kesivan' and 'Kesivan ve'Lo Karyan'?
Answers to questions

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