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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Nedarim 61

NEDARIM 61 - has been dedicated to the memory of Yedidya ben Simcha Gedaliah, who completed his mission on this world in but a few weeks.


(a) Suggestion: If it is understood as stated - this is obvious!
(b) Answer: Rather, the case must be, he said 'a year'.
i. We infer, 'a year' is as saying 'this year'; likewise, 'a day' is as saying 'today'.
(c) Rejection: No - he really said 'this year'.
1. One might have thought, we go after most years which are not leap years - we hear, this is not so.
(d) Question: Wine is forbidden to me for this Yovel (Jubilee cycle) - what is the law?
1. Does the 50th year count as part of this Yovel, or as part of the next?
(e) Answer (Beraisa): "You will sanctify the 50th year" - you count it as the 50th year, but not also as the 1st year of the coming Shemitah cycle;
1. R. Yehudah says, it also counts as the 1st year of the coming Shemitah.
2. Objection (Chachamim): But it says, "6 years you will sow your field" - according to you, there are only 5 years one may plant between Yovel and the next Shemitah!
3. Counter-objection (R. Yehudah): It says, "The land will produce for 3 years" - also according to you, the year before a Shemitah followed by Yovel must produce for 4 years!
i. You must say, the verse speaks of the year before a Shemitah not followed by Yovel.
ii. Also, the verse "6 years..." speaks of the years after a Shemitah not followed by Yovel.
(a) (Mishnah): 'Until Pesach' - he is forbidden ...
(b) This implies, R. Meir holds that a person does not enter a doubt (i.e. he only intends for what is clearly in his words), and R. Yosi hold that a person enters a doubt!

(c) Contradiction (Mishnah): Reuven has (at least 2) daughters from each of 2 wives. He says, 'I betrothed my big daughter to a man; I don't remember if it was the oldest daughter from my 1st wife, or the oldest from my 2nd wife, or the youngest from my 1st wife, for she is older than all my daughters from my 2nd wife';
1. R. Meir says, all his daughters are doubtfully engaged, except for the youngest from the 2nd wife; R. Yosi says, he surely engaged the oldest from the 1st wife.
(d) Answer (R. Chanina Ben Avdimi): The opinions of R. Meir and R. Yosi in our Mishnah should be switched.
1. Support (Beraisa): Anything with a fixed time - if a person said 'Ad Lifnei' (until before), R. Meir says he is forbidden until the end; R. Yosi says, until it starts.
(a) (Mishnah): 'Until the harvest, until the grape harvest, until the olive harvest' - he is only forbidden until it begins;
1. The rule is, anything with a fixed time, if he said 'Until it comes', he is forbidden until the start; if he said 'Until it will be', he is forbidden until the end;
2. Anything without a fixed time, whether he said 'Until it comes' or 'Until it will be', he is only forbidden until the start.
(b) 'Until the Kayitz (cutting, i.e. summer); , until it will be Kayitz - he is forbidden until people start to gather in baskets;
1. 'Until Kayitz passes' - he is forbidden until people store away the knives used to cut figs.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): The basket referred to is for figs, not for grapes.
(d) (Beraisa): One who vows not to eat summer fruits is only forbidden to have figs; R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, this includes grapes.
(e) Question: Why does the 1st Tana only forbid figs?
(f) Answer: He holds, figs are plucked by hand, grapes are not.
1. R. Shimon Ben Gamliel includes grapes, for these are also plucked by hand when the stems dry out.
(g) (Mishnah): Until Kayitz passes' - he is forbidden until people store away the knives used to cut figs.
(h) (Beraisa): Until most of these knives are stored away.
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