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of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Nedarim 58


(a) Answer #3 (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Any thing which can become permitted, such as untithed produce, Ma'aser Sheni, Hekdesh, and new grain (before the Omer sacrifice is brought), it was decreed that is not nullified if it is mixed with something else;
(b) Any thing which can never become permitted, such as Terumah, Terumas Ma'aser, Chalah, Orlah, and crossbreeds planted in a vineyard - (previous) sages fixed an amount, how much permitted food it must be mixed with to become nullified;
1. Chachamim: But Shemitah is never permitted, and it is never nullified!
i. (Mishnah): Any quantity of Shemitah produce mixed with the same species, the mixture is forbidden.
2. {Our text, as the Rosh - R. Shimon: I only said (in that Mishnah) regarding Bi'ur (if a bulb from before Shemitah grew in Shemitah, the growth is not nullified, and the onion must be eradicated);
3. Ran's text - R. Shimon: That Mishnah only applies to Bi'ur (if Shemitah food was mixed with other food before Bi'ur, since Shemitah food is permitted before Bi'ur, this is as something which can be permitted, and it is not nullified);}
i. Regarding eating (if Shemitah food was mixed with other food after Bi'ur), if the Shemitah food does not give taste to the mixture, it is nullified (since Shemitah is always forbidden after Bi'ur).
(c) Rejection: Perhaps here, also, we are stringent to say that the bulb is not nullified!
(d) Answer #4 (Mishnah): Onions were in the ground in Shemitah; rain fell, and they sprouted. If the leaves are black, they are forbidden; if they are green, they are permitted;
1. R. Chanina Ben Antigonus says, if they can be uprooted by the leaves, they are forbidden;
2. By Shemitah onions which resumed growing in the year after Shemitah, if the leaves grow enough, the onions are permitted.
i. We see, permitted growth nullifies a forbidden bulb!
(e) Rejection: Perhaps the Mishnah deals with onions that were mashed (therefore, they are not so special, and can become nullified.

(f) Answer #5 (Beraisa): One who weeds with a Nochri in Chasayos (species in which the seed remains) may eat from them casually (before tithing); to eat from in a fixed way, they are tithed as produce which definitely must be tithed;
1. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, a Yisrael that is suspected of not observing Shemitah, one may eat his Chasayos in the year after Shemitah.
(g) We infer, the added growth in the 8th year nullifies the bulb (which was forbidden)!
1. Suggestion: This is no proof - perhaps he speaks of a species in which the seed disintegrates!
2. Rejection (Beraisa): These are Chasayos: Such as lupines, garlic, and onions (in which the seed remains)!
3. Suggestion: This is no proof - perhaps the case is, the produce was ground up (Ran - before it was planted; Rosh - after it was harvested, and it was mixed with permitted produce)!
4. Rejection: The Beraisa speaks of one suspected of violating Shemitah - he would not bother to grind up the produce!
5. Suggestion: This is no proof - perhaps the case is, the produce was mixed up with permitted produce!
6. Rejection: The Beraisa allows one to eat while weeding, when they are not mixed up!
(h) Suggestion: This Beraisa refutes R. Yochanan and R. Yonason (57B).
(i) Rejection (R. Yitzchak): Shemitah is different - since the prohibition comes through land, the prohibition can be nullified even while attached to the land.
(j) Question: But the prohibition of Ma'aser comes through land, but it is not nullified while attached!
1. (Beraisa): A Litra of Ma'aser Rishon, from which Terumas Ma'aser was not separated, was planted; it is now 10 Litras - the laws of Ma'aser and Shemitah apply to the produce;
i. Tithes on the initial Litra must be separated from other produce.
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