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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Nedarim 54


(a) (Mishnah): One who vows from vegetables may have gourd; R. Akiva forbids.
1. Chachamim: If one sends a messenger to the market to buy vegetables, he will say, I didn't find vegetables, only gourds!
2. R. Akiva: Yes! He would not say, I only found legumes.
i. Gourds are in the category of vegetables; legumes are not.
(b) He may have dry Egyptian beans, but not moist.
(c) (Gemara) Question: He vowed from vegetables - how can R. Akiva forbid gourds?
(d) Answer (Ula): The case is, he vowed from pot vegetables (the extra word shows that he wants to forbid something else as well).
(e) Question: Maybe he meant to include vegetables eaten in a pot (i.e. that are added for flavor)!
(f) Answer: He vowed from vegetables cooked in a pot.
(g) Question: On what do Chachamim and R. Akiva argue?
(h) Answer: Chachamim hold, anything a messenger must ask about is not included in the species; R. Akiva says that it is.
1. (Abaye): R. Akiva admits that (the one who vowed) is not lashed for eating things a messenger would ask about.
(i) (Mishnah): If the agent fulfilled his mission (and spent Hekdesh money), the one who sent him transgresses Me'ilah; if he did not fulfill his mission (e.g. he bought the wrong item), he himself transgresses Me'ilah.
(a) Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
(b) Answer (Rav Chisda): It is not as R. Akiva.
1. (Beginning of that Mishnah): A man told his servant - 'Give meat to the guests', and he gave liver (of Hekdesh), or vice-versa - the servant transgressed Me'ilah.
2. R. Akiva would hold, since an agent would ask if he should get liver in place of meat, this is a fulfillment of the mission, and the sender transgresses, not the agent!
(c) Rejection (Abaye): The Mishnah can be as R. Akiva - R. Akiva admits, the agent must consult!

(d) (Rava): Abaye is correct - the Chachamim that argue on R. Akiva hold as R. Shimon Ben Gamliel.
1. (Beraisa): One who vows from meat is forbidden in all types of beef, the head, the legs, the chest, the innards, the liver, the heart, and fowl; he may have fish and grasshoppers;
2. R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, he is forbidden all types of beef, but may have the head, legs, innards, liver, heart, and fowl; all the more so, he may have fish and grasshoppers.
i. (R. Shimon Ben Gamliel): The innards are not considered meat; one who eats them is not a person.
ii. Question: In what respect is he not a person?
iii. Answer: If he buys them in place of meat, he is abnormal.
(e) Question: Why does the 1st Tana prohibit fowl, and permit fish - a messenger would consult before buying either!
(f) Answer #1 (Abaye): The case is, the one that vowed just underwent bloodletting (therefore, he had no intention to eat fish anyway, so he didn't intend to forbid it).
1. Question: If so, the same should apply to fowl!
i. (Shmuel): One who lets blood from the shoulder and eats meat of birds, his heart will flutter as a bird.
ii. (Beraisa): We do not let blood after the patient ate fish, fowl or salted meat;
iii. (Beraisa): After letting blood, the patient should not eat milk, cheese, eggs, leeks, fowl or salted meat.
2. Answer: He had fowl in mind, since if he overcooks it, it will not harm him.
(g) Answer #2 (Rava): His eyes were hurting when he vowed, (since he had no intention to eat fish anyway, he didn't intend to forbid it).
(h) Question: To the contrary! Shmuel taught, fish are a remedy for the eyes!
(i) Answer: They are only helpful at the end of the sickness,
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