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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Nedarim 37


(a) Answer: We learn that even where wages are paid both for written Torah and Medrash, one may only take for teaching written Torah, not for Medrash.
(b) Rhetorical question: Why can't he take for Medrash?
(c) Answer: "Hash-m commanded me to teach you"; "I taught you statutes and laws as Hash-m commanded me".
1. Just as I taught you for free, you must teach for free.
(d) Question: This should also show that written Torah must be taught for free!
(e) Answer #1 (Rav): One may receive wages for watching the Talmidim.
(f) Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): One may receive wages for teaching the cantillation.
(g) (Mishnah): Reuven may not teach Shimon written Torah.
1. We understand this according to R. Yochanan,
(h) Question: According to Rav, does one pay for watching an adult?!
(i) Answer: The case is, Shimon is a minor.
(j) Objection: But the end of the Mishnah says, he may teach Shimon's children written Torah - if Shimon is a minor, he cannot have children!
(k) Answer: The Mishnah is abbreviated; the full Mishnah says: Reuven may not teach Shimon written Torah; this is when Shimon is a minor. If Shimon is an adult, Reuven may teach him and his children.
(l) Question (Beraisa): Children do not learn new things on Shabbos, but they may do the 1st review of what they learned.
1. This fits well according to the opinion that wages are taken for teaching the cantillation.
2. Question: According to the opinion that wages are for watching the children - why can't they learn new things, but may review?
i. The same wages for watching them apply when they review!
3. Counter-question: This is also difficult if wages are for teaching the cantillation - one may receive wages for work done on Shabbos together with wages for work done during the week!
i. (Beraisa): One who hires a worker to guard a child, a red heifer, or plants (all needed for Hekdesh) - he does not receive wages for Shabbos; therefore, if they were lost (or became Tamei), he is exempt;

ii. If he was hired by the week, month, year or Shemitah cycle, he receives wages for Shabbos; therefore, he must pay if they are lost.
4. Answer #1 (to question and counter-question): Rather, they do not learn new things on Shabbos so that their fathers can enjoy Shabbos with their children.
5. Answer #2: They do not learn new things on Shabbos because they are less alert because they eat and drink more.
i. (Shmuel): Change in routine is the start of intestinal sickness.
(a) Question: Why didn't R. Yochanan answer as Rav?
(b) Answer: Girls to not need to be watched (yet one may receive wages for teaching them).
(c) Question: Why didn't Rav answer as R. Yochanan?
(d) Answer: Rav holds, the cantillation is also mid'Oraisa.
1. (Rav): "They read in the Sefer Torah of Hash-m, explicitly; they put their minds and understood the written Torah": "They read in the Sefer Torah of Hash-m" - this is the written Torah;
2. "Explicitly" - this is the (Arameic translation);
3. "They put their minds" - these are the divisions into verses;
4. "And they understood the written Torah" - this is the cantillation.
i. Some say, this is the tradition of extra or missing letters.
(e) (R. Yitzchak): The following are traditions from Moshe from Sinai: vowelization; embellishments in the text; words which are read but not written, or written but not read.
1. Vowelization - e.g. when "Eretz" has the cantillation Asnachta, it is pronounced "Aretz"; we read "Shamayim", "Mitzrayim", not 'Shamim, Mitzrim'.
2. Embellishments in the text - such as "After(wards) you will pass", "After" is only there to embellish the language.
3. Words which are read but not written - such as "Paras" (by "In his going").
4. Words that are written but not read - such as "Na" (by "Forgive").
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