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Nedarim 33

1) [line 6] TZANA - basket
2) [line 8] LEIRA'OS BAH - with which to appear as a dignified person
3) [line 8] MIFSAK U'MEIZAL B'AR'EI - taking a short cut through his land

4) [line 20] SHOKEL LO - he may pay his Shekel for him (SHEKALIM)
(a) In the Beis ha'Mikdash, many public sacrifices were offered (for example, the daily Temidim, the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals, etc.). In order to finance these Korbanos, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew, both those living in Eretz Yisrael and in the Golah, once a year.
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at a half Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not *less* than the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).

5) [line 22] TIPOL HANA'AH L'HEKDESH - the money [that is normally paid to one who returns a lost article] should be given to Hekdesh instead

6) [line 23] AVRUCHEI ARI B'ALMA HU - he is merely chasing away a lion, i.e. helping someone avoid a loss is not considered monetary Ha'na'ah


7) [line 8] HINI'ACH MA'OSAV AL KEREN HA'TZEVI - (lit. he placed his money on the horn of a gazelle) he lost his money [since a gazelle runs much faster than a person and is impossible to overtake - TOSFOS YOM TOV to Kesuvos 13:2]

The Gemara (Sukah 25a) brings the verse "b'Shivtecha b'Veisecha" (Devarim 6:7) to prove that one is not required to do a Mitzvah while he is occupied with another Mitzvah. As a result, Rav Yosef rules that when one is busy guarding an Aveidah (a lost item that one found), should a pauper come to his door he will not be obligated to give him Tzedakah. This penny saved is a penny earned and therefore it is enough to consider the Shomer Aveidah a Shomer Sachar (a paid watchman) for he is being "paid" the Perutah that he need not give to the pauper. Even if the situation does not arise, he is considered a paid watchman, since the "job" carries with it the possibility of a financial gain.

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