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Nedarim 23

NEDARIM 23 (10 Av) - dedicated by Mrs. G. Turkel (Rabbi Kornfeld's grandmother) to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael Shimon (Isi) ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel. Reb Yisrael Turkel loved Torah and supported it with his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av, 5780.

1a) [line 1] V'HAVU METZTA'AREI RABANAN - and the scholars were distraught
b) [line 1] MI'SHIMSHA L'TULA, UMI'TULA L'SHIMSHA - [because they could not find a Pesach for Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi's Neder] all day (lit. from being in the sun to being in the shade and from being in the shade to being in the sun). The MAHARSHA explains that the Beis Midrash was built with an adjacent courtyard. In the morning and the evening, the scholars sat in the courtyard (in the sun, Shimsha). In the middle of the day, when the sun was too strong, they went into the building (into the shade, l'Tula)

2) [line 11] KATZRA - clothes-washer

3a) [line 12] MACHYEI - the clothes-washer hit Rebbi Yishmael bar Rebbi Yosi
b) [line 12] B'UCHLA D'KATZREI - (a) a copper utensil shaped like a sieve that is used by clothes-washers to sprinkle water onto garments while it is placed on the garments; alt. garments are placed on it when incense is burned under them (RASHI to Shabbos 123b); (b) a tub used by clothes-washers (MEFARESH); (c) according to the Girsa *UVLA* D'KATZREI - the large rock used by clothes-washers against which they beat clothes (that are immersed in water) to clean them (RABEINU CHANANEL to Shabbos ibid.)

(a) When an adult makes a Neder (or designates Chalah, Terumah or Kodshim) or Nezirus, and he regrets having made the Neder, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact. This investigation provides the person with a "Pesach" (opening) with which the Beis Din can revoke the Neder.
(b) A Pesach based on a factor that did not exist at the time the person made the Neder, and thus which the person could not have taken into account, is termed "Nolad" (born). It is not a Pesach that allows the Neder to be annulled because it is as if the Pesach was "born" at this point in time and would not have changed the situation at the time of the Neder.

5) [line 17] D'SHECHICHEI APIKOREI D'METZA'AREI RABANAN - since it is common for heretics (like the Katzra) to torment the Rabbis

6) [line 19] LI'KERIVA'I - [I want her to be wed] to my relative


7) [line 6] AKREI LI'TENA'EI V'KIYEIM LEI L'NIDREI - he canceled (lit. uprooted) his stipulation and established his Neder

8) [line 15] L'MIDRESHEI B'FIRKA - to teach it publicly at a Derashah (public lecture)

9) [line 16] MASTIM LAH SESUMEI - taught it in a concealed manner

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