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Previous daf Nedarim 19
NEDARIM 19 & 20 (7 Av) - has been dedicated to the memory of Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y., by his wife
and daughters. G-d fearing and knowledgeable, Simcha was well known in the
community for his Chesed and Tzedakah. He will long be remembered.
1) [line 4] BECHOR ADAM
(a) The Torah requires that every person sanctify the firstborn male of his
children, Kosher animals and donkeys, as it is written, "Kadesh Li Kol
Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael, ba'Adam uva'Behemah; Li Hu." -
"Sanctify to Me every first-born that initiates the womb among the children
of Yisrael, among both man and beast; it is Mine." (Shemos 13:2)
(b) HaSh-m wanted to give us merit by having us perform a Mitzvah with the
first produce of our efforts so that we should realize that everything is
His. A person comes to this understanding when after all his toil he takes
these first products, which are as dear to him as the apple of his eye; and
gives them to HaSh-m.
(c) Another reason for this Mitzvah is to remember the great miracle that
HaSh-m did for us by killing the firstborn of Egypt. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #18)
(d) The first male born to a *mother* must be redeemed by his father as
stated in Shemos 13:13, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh." The Bechor
must be redeemed when he is one month old by giving five silver Shekalim of
Kodesh (each of which weighs 22.8 grams / 0.8 ounces) to a Kohen as stated
in Bamidbar (18:16). This applies only if the son was the first issue (i.e.
he was not preceded by a Nefel -- stillborn) and was not a Yotzei Dofen
(born by Cesarean section). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #392)
2) [line 4] BECHOR BEHEMAH (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH)
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or
sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a
Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim
15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban
during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos
7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in
Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by
Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its
first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be
slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell
it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or
weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to
shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on
its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a
Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor
until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no
Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be
bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393,
3) [line 6] ASURIN B'GIZAH V'AVODAH - see above, entry #2d
4) [line 8] SAFEK MASHKIN
(a) In general, the various levels of Tum'ah are called, respectively: 1. Av
ha'Tum'ah, 2. Rishon l'Tum'ah, 3. Sheni and 4. Shelishi. The latter two
(Sheni and Shelishi) are called "Velad ha'Tum'ah."
(b) Normally, utensils can only become an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah,
but they cannot become a Velad ha'Tum'ah. However, the Chachamim decreed
that liquids that are touched by a Rishon or Sheni can make utensils become
Teme'im (Shabbos 14b, and Tosfos DH Ela b'Mashkin). A utensil that becomes
Tamei mid'Rabanan in such a manner is called a Velad ha'Tum'ah.
(c) The reason for the decree of the Chachamim that liquids which acquire
Tum'ah from a Rishon and Sheni l'Tum'ah are Metamei utensils, is that there
are liquids which are Metamei utensils mid'Oraisa; namely the bodily liquids
of a Zav or Zavah. The Zov, semen, saliva and urine of a Zav, and the blood,
saliva and urine of a Zavah are all Avos ha'Tum'ah.
5a) [line 13] AYIL KAMTZA - a type of locust
b) [line 14] DACHAN - Tahor, i.e. Kosher
6a) [line 14] MASHKIN BEIS MITBECHAYA - the water that was used and the
blood that was found in the slaughtering-area of the Azarah
b) [line 14] DACHAN - Tahor
7) [line 6] NEZIR OLAM
(a) If someone says "I am a Nazir forever" or "I am a Nazir all the days of
my life", he becomes a Nezir Olam and is a Nazir till the end of his life.
Like a normal Nazir, he is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei
by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any
products of the grapevine.
(b) A Nezir Olam differs from a normal Nazir in that he may cut off some of
his hair at the end of every twelve months when his hair becomes heavy, but
he may not shave it off completely. On the day that he cuts his hair, he
brings the three Korbanos that a normal Nazir brings at the completion of
the Nezirus period, namely a Chatas, an Olah and a Shelamim (see Background
to Nedarim 9:5:c). If he becomes Tamei, he brings a Korban Tum'ah, shaves
his hair and starts his Nezirus anew (just like any Nazir who becomes
Tamei -- see Background to Nedarim 9:5:b). (Nazir 1:2, RAMBAM Nezirus 3:12)
8) [line 7] HICHBID SA'ARO, MEIKEL B'SA'AR - if his hair became heavy (after
twelve months), he can cut off some of it (lit. lighten it), with a razor
9) [line 9] NEZIR SHIMSHON
A Nezir Shimshon is a Nazir until the end of his life (see above, entry #7),
with the exception that he may come in contact with a corpse (and does not
have to bring a Korban for doing so). He is never allowed to cut his hair or
drink wine. (Nazir 1:2)
10) [line 14] EIN ECHAD MEHEM NAZIR - [If a person passes by two people and
one of the two says, "I shall be a Nazir if that person passing by is a
Nazir" while the other one says, "I shall be a Nazir if that person passing
by is *not* a Nazir,"] neither one of them is a Nazir
11) [line 14] SHE'LO NITNAH NEZIRUS ELA L'HAFLA'AH - the laws of Nezirus
only apply to a distinct utterance (where there is no question or doubt)