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Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Nazir 40


(a) (Rebbi): Even if "Razor" teaches about the prohibition, it can also teach about the Mitzvah to shave at the end of Nezirus!
1. "A razor will not pass over his head until completion (of Nezirus)" - after completion, shaving can only be with a razor.
(b) Question: But ("Razor" is not needed to teach about the prohibition, for) it says, "A razor will not pass over his head" (which includes all forms of removing hair)!
(c) Answer: "Razor" teaches that if he shaves with a razor, he transgresses 2 prohibitions.
(a) (Rav Chisda): One is lashed for shaving even 1 hair; 2 unshaven hairs invalidate the Mitzvah of shaving (upon completion of Nezirus); one who shaves during Nezirus only nullifies days he guarded if he shaved the majority of his head; (the 1st law) only applies with a razor.
(b) Question: But the Beraisa learns that one is liable for any method of removing hair!
(c) Answer: Rather, Rav Chisda meant that one is only liable for shaving as with a razor cutting very close to the scalp).
1. Support (Beraisa): A Nazir that pulled out hairs or parts of hairs only nullifies days already counted if he removed most of the hairs of his head with a razor; R. Shimon says, just as 2 remaining hairs invalidate the Mitzvah of shaving (at the end of Nezirus), 2 hairs shaved during Nezirus nullify days counted.
(a) (Mishnah): 3 have a Mitzvah to shave: A Nazir, a leper, and Levi'im (when they were chosen to serve the Mishkan);
1. All 3 must shave with a razor; 2 remaining hairs invalidate the Mitzvah.
(b) Question: The 1st statement is obvious!
(c) Answer: One might have thought, the Mitzvah is to remove the hair, and even a cream which makes hair fall out suffices - we hear, this is not so.
(d) The Mishnah said, they must shave with a razor.
1. We understand, by a Nazir it says, "A razor will not pass over his head" (and from the prohibition we learn about the Mitzvah).
2. By Levi'im its says, "They will pass a razor over all their flesh".
(e) Question: How do we know that a leper must shave with a razor?
1. Suggestion: Just as the shaving of Levi'im requires a razor, also of lepers.
2. Rejection: The Torah required the bodies of the Levi'im to be waved and not of lepers, perhaps it is also more stringent regarding the shaving of Levi'im.
3. Suggestion: We learn from a Nazir.
4. Rejection: The sacrifice of a Nazir must be accompanied by bread, unlike that of a leper - perhaps the shaving of a Nazir is also more stringent than of a leper.
(f) Answer: We learn from both of them.
1. Suggestion: If we try to learn from Levi'im, we can object - since Levi'im must be waved, perhaps their shaving is more stringent.
2. Answer: We see that a Nazir require a razor, even though a Nazir is not waved!
3. Objection: Perhaps a Nazir requires a razor because his sacrifice requires bread!
4. Answer: Levi'im require a razor, even though they do not bring a sacrifice of bread!
i. The stringencies of Levi'im and Nezirim are different. The common side is that they must shave; the shaving must be with a razor.
ii. Also lepers must shave - we may learn that also their shaving requires a razor!
(g) Rejection (Rava from Barnish): But a common side of Levi'im and Nezirim is that the Torah did not specify a cheaper sacrifice if they are poor - we cannot learn to lepers, for a poor leper brings a cheaper sacrifice!

(h) Question (Rava bar Mesharshiya): The Tana first said (end of 39B) that we cannot learn that a Nazir must shave with a razor from a leper, since a leper is more stringent (apparently, the shaving of a leper is not learned from Nazir);
1. Later, the Tana (40A) tries (and fails) to learn a leper from a Nazir!
(i) Answer (Rava): The former is as Chachamim; the latter is as R. Eliezer (as follows).
(a) (Mishnah): One is only liable (for shaving his beard) with a razor; R. Eliezer says, he is liable even with tweezers or a (carpenter's) plane.
(b) Question: What is the source of Chachamim?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): "(Kohanim) will not shave the corners of their beards" - one might have thought, this applies even if he is a leper - the Torah says "(A leper will shave) his beard", to teach that a leprous Kohen shaves his beard.
(d) Question: How do we know that a leper must shave with a razor?
(e) Answer (Beraisa): "(Kohanim) will not shave the corners of their beards" - one might have thought, he is liable even if he shaves with scissors - the Torah says "Do not destroy (your beard)"; one might have thought, one is liable even with a tweezers or a plane - the Torah says "They will not shave".
1. The Torah forbade shaving which destroys (the entire hair), namely, with a razor.
(f) Question: Perhaps the prohibition is only with a razor, but a leper can also fulfill his Mitzvah with tweezers or a plane!
1. "His beard" comes to teach that he is allowed to shave with a razor.
(g) Answer #1: If he fulfills his Mitzvah with tweezers or a plane - no verse is needed to permit a razor!
1. It is forbidden to become a Nazir, and nevertheless, a Nazir's Mitzvah to shave overrides the prohibition to cut the Pe'os of the head - all the more so, a leper, who did not sin, his Mitzvah to shave overrides the prohibition to shave the beard (with a razor).
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