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Nazir 64

1a) [line 2] (B'CHOL HA'SHERETZ) [BA'SHERETZ] HA'SHORETZ AL HA'ARETZ (Vayikra 11:29) - this verse is referring to Tum'as Maga. Other similar verses (including the Girsa of our Gemara), ibid. 11:41-44, refer to eating Sheratzim
b) [line 2] "[V'ZEH LACHEM HA'TAMEI] BA'SHERETZ HA'SHORETZ AL HA'ARETZ, [HA'CHOLED VEHA'ACHBAR VEHA'TZAV L'MINEHU.]" - "[These also shall be Tamei to you] among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; [the rat (see Background to Shabbos 107:5:1 for alternate translations of "Choled"), and the mouse, and the tortoise (see ibid. 107:5:3) after its kind.]" (Vayikra 11:29)

2) [line 5] "ACH MA'AYAN [U'VOR MIKVEH MAYIM YIHEYEH TAHOR; V'NOGE'A B'NIVLASAM] YITMA." - "But a spring [or a well wherein is an accumulation of water shall be Tahor; but he who touches their carcass] shall be Tamei." (Vayikra 11:36)

3a) [line 7] HA'NITALIN - (a) Tum'os that are being *carried* by a person, [about which we have a Safek if they touched Taharos] (ROSH); (b) Tum'os that are being *dangled* over the water [about which we have a Safek if they touched someone who is standing in the water] (TOSFOS; see Hagahos ha'Gra #1, who changes the Girsa to *HA'NITLIN* -- with a "Tav" instead of a "Tes")
b) [line 7] HA'NIGRARIN - Tum'os that are being dragged (a) by a string or rope (ROSH, according to the ARZEI HA'LEVANON 9:61); (b) by a person (TOSFOS, GRA, according to the ARZEI HA'LEVANON ibid.)

(a) ZAV (Vayikra 15:1-15) - A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see the next entry for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Nazir 47:9:b) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e) In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the *first two* were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if *all three* emissions are not b'Ones. However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).
(f) ZAVAH (Vayikra 15:25-30) - The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(g) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must *watch* the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(h) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(a) A Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie *above* the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav or Zavah.
(d) A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does *not* Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way.

5) [line 16] K'MAN D'MACHTA TUM'AH BI'CHELI DAMYA - it is as if the Tum'ah is lying in a utensil [and is considered Kavu'ah, fixed, and we rule that the Safek is Tamei, as opposed to the Halachah of "Safek Tum'ah Tzafah"]

6) [line 17] TUM'AH SEMICHTA - thick (or solid) Tum'ah
7) [line 26] SHE'NIMOCHAH - that rotted and turned to liquid


8) [line 2] KEVER HA'TEHOM - this is not referring to a grave
9) [line 9] SHIMSHA MIMEILA ARVA - the sun inevitably goes down

10a) [line 10] YOM MELOS TAVI (YOLEDES)
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days. (This period is called "Melos" because of the verse "Ad *Melos* Yemei Tahorah" (Vayikra 12:4) -- RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnah)
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
b) [line 10] YOM MELOS TAVI - if the woman gave birth again (or miscarried) from the 80th day onward, she must bring [another Korban Yoledes]
c) [line 10] TOCH MELOS LO SAVI - if the woman gave birth again (or miscarried) within the 80-day period during which she may not yet bring a Korban, she does not bring [another Korban Yoledes]

11) [line 17] BA'TECHILAH - at first, i.e. the grave was as yet undiscovered
12) [line 18] TEFUSASO - [when an unknown grave is discovered,] the "Tefusah," or the Afar ha'Ticho'ach (loose earth underneath the dead body) and three finger-breadths of Karka ha'Besulah (ground that has never been turned, that is under the Afar ha'Ticho'ach), [is dug up with the body for proper burial]

13) [last line] SHECHUNAS KEVAROS
(a) When three as yet unknown graves are discovered, they constitute a Shechunas Kevaros (lit. a settlement of graves), and one must suspect that the area was once a cemetery. It is prohibited to remove the bodies (under normal circumstances).
(b) In order to be designated as a Shechunas Kevaros, the graves must be separated by four to eight Amos. The area around them within a radius of twenty Amos from the outermost graves must be checked for other graves. If a grave is found, the area beyond that grave must be checked within a radius of twenty Amos, also. If no other graves are found, the area within the last twenty-Amah radius is Tahor.
(c) If one of the three bodies was missing a limb, the graves do not get the status of a Shechunas Kevaros. This may be a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (TOSFOS) or evidence that the person was buried in a makeshift grave by his murderers (SEFAS EMES). Similarly, the presence of other evidence that the bodies were not given a proper burial precludes the status of a Shechunas Kevaros. Some examples: many bodies buried in a mass grave; bodies that were buried in a sitting position or with their heads between their knees; bodies that were obviously murdered (see RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 9:1-5).

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