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Nazir 56

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 3] NEZIRUS MU'ETES - a Nezirus in which the Nazir became a Metzora, and thirty days remain from the day of the onset of his Tzara'as until the end of his period of Nezirus

2) [line 4] NEZIRUS BAS SHANAH - a Nezirus of one year
3) [line 17] NAZIR B'KEVER - A person who became a Nazir in a cemetery


4) [line 3] YEMEI HESGERO
(a) THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAMEI - When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one week, making him a *Metzora Musgar* (Hesger Rishon). The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If there are no changes, the person remains a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Sheni) and the Kohen returns after the second week. If there are still no changes the Kohen pronounces the person to be Tahor. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c) The Simanei Tum'ah for marks that appear on the skin (Nig'ei Basar) are: 1. the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. at least two white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark *after* the Nega Tzara'as appears; or 3. a patch of healthy skin (Michyah) appears in the middle of the Nega.

5) [line 4] MISHKAV U'MOSHAV
(a) A Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A Metzora is also Metamei Mishkav and Moshav, but the Rishonim argue as to whether his Mishkav and Moshav get the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah (RASHI to Yoma 6b, TOSFOS to Pesachim 67b DH she'Ken, citing Rav Moshe mi'Pontisa, RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Metzora 10:11 et al) or only a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI and TOSFOS to Pesachim ibid. et al).
(c) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Metzora or a Midras of a Metzora (according to those Rishonim who rule that his Midras becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah) gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(d) According to those Rishonim who rule that the Midras of a Metzora becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah, a Metzora also is Metamei utensils or clothes that lie *above* him to be a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Metzora.

6) [line 21] BI'AS MIKDASH
There are three main Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar (desert):
(a) The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis, is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponded to the area of encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im. Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(b) The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10), is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponded to the area around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. Not only Metzora'im are prohibited to enter this area, but also Zavin, Zavos, Nidos and Yoldos.
(c) The entire area within the Azarah (i.e. the Ezras Yisrael (TY #22) and the Ezras Kohanim (TY #25) that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach (TY #47), and various Lishkos or chambers -- but not the Ezras Nashim -- is Machaneh Shechinah (excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor -- TY #18). This corresponded to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im/curtains]. This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes.

7) [line 24] SHERETZ
A Sheretz, even if it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah. It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact). He or it may not enter the Machaneh Shechinah (see previous entry) and he may not eat Terumah and Kodshim. If a person or object becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz, he can immediately immerse or it can immediately be immersed in a Mikvah. After nightfall he or it becomes Tahor and may enter the Machaneh Shechinah and he may eat Terumah and Kodshim.

8) [line 27] ARDISKIYA - probably a Persian name for Damascus
9) [line 41] KOL SHEMA'ATA D'MIS'AMRA B'VEI TELASA, KADMA'I U'VASRA'I AMRINAN, METZI'A'I LO AMIRINAN - any teaching that is cited in the name of three sages, each one quoting the previous one, may be cited in the name of the first and last sage, leaving out the middle sage

10) [line 44] NACHUM HA'LAVLAR - a Tana named Nachum the Scribe

11) [line 45] ZUGOS
The Zugos are the pairs of Tana'im mentioned at the beginning of Pirkei Avos who were responsible for conveying the teachings of the Torah from one generation to the next. The first Tana of each pair was the Nasi and the second was the Av Beis Din. Shimon ha'Tzadik was the last sage to remain from the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah. Antignos Ish Socho received the tradition from Shimon ha'Tzadik. The first of the Zugos was taught by both Shimon ha'Tzadik and Antignos Ish Socho. Each following Zug was taught by the previous one. The list of Zugos are:

1a. Yosei Ben Yoezer Ish Tzeredah
b. Yosei Ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim
2a. Yehoshua Ben Perachyah
b. Nitai ha'Arbeli
3a. Yehudah Ben Tabai
b. Shimon Ben Shetach
4a. Shemayah
b. Avtalyon
5a. Hilel
b. Shamai
12) [line 45] B'ZORE'A SHEVES V'CHARDAL - regarding one who plants dill and mustard (MISHNAH Pe'ah 3:2). According to TOSFOS and the MEFARESH the correct Girsa is, "HA'ZORE'A SHENEI MINEI CHITIN: ASA'AN GOREN ECHAD, NOSEN PE'AH ACHAS; SHTEI GERANOS, NOSEN SHTEI PE'OS" (MISHNAH Pe'ah 2:5)

13) [line 46] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10)

14) [line 46] YEHOSHU'A V'CHALEV - Yehoshu'a bin Nun and Kalev ben Yefuneh were in the line of sages who conveyed the teachings of the Torah from Moshe Rabeinu to the "Zekenim" ("Sages")

15) [line 50] V'HIRTZEISI [HA']DEVARIM LIFNEI REBBI YEHOSHUA - and I presented my reasoning before Rebbi Yehoshua

16) [last line] HALACHAH - [that Etzem is] a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai [and we do not learn a Kal va'Chomer or any of the other "Midos sheha'Torah Nidreshes Bahem" (methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah) from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, only from the *verses* of the Torah]

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