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|The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number
assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes
Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate
mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael
Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's
Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
1) [line 4] HA'TARMODIS - from Tarmod (or Tadmor) = Palmyra, an oasis in the
2a) [line 9] ACHAR MELOS - [becoming Tamei Mes] after the completion of his
b) [line 9] SHIV'AH SOSER - cancels seven [days of Nezirus which must be
*****PEREK #7 KOHEN GADOL*****
3) [line 18] EIN MITAM'IN LI'KEROVEIHEN
The Torah forbids Kohanim (Vayikra 21:1-4) and Nezirim (Bamidbar 6:6-7) from
coming into contact with corpses. An ordinary Kohen is concurrently
commanded to handle the burial of his mother, father, son, daughter,
brother, sister from his father (if she is an unmarried virgin), and wife
(if the wife is permitted to be married to him). The Kohen Gadol, as well as
Nezirim, however, may not even become Teme'im for these relatives.
4) [line 19] MES MITZVAH
(a) When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his
relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes
Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM
Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b) The body must be buried where it is found; Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo i.e.
it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of
a field, it is buried there. However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos
of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM
Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)
5) [last line] MASHU'ACH B'SHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH - the Kohen Gadol who is
anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see next entry)
6) [line 1] MERUBEH BEGADIM (KOHEN GADOL)
(a) A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the
Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his
consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos
Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)
(b) The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3.
Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6.
Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2.
Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was
anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33), the oil made by
Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim
and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.
(e) Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu
ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II
35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar
16:16-26) and the Shemen ha'Mishchah were also hidden together with the Aron
(Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to
anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis
ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim
Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubeh Begadim
because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven
7) [line 2] PAR HA'BA AL KOL HA'MITZVOS (PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH)
(a) The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by
a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not
prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same
sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit
transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(b) The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is
applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the
Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the
Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on
the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not
sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12).
Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim.
(According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the
meat are Metamei Begadim.)
8) [line 4] MASHU'ACH SHE'AVAR - The anointed Kohen Gadol who is removed
(a) When an incumbent Kohen Gadol becomes unfit to perform the Avodah in the
Beis ha'Mikdash, another Kohen Gadol is appointed as a temporary
replacement. After the reinstatement of the incumbent Kohen Gadol, his
replacement becomes a Mashu'ach she'Avar and he is forced to step down.
(b) He no longer does the Avodah as a Kohen Gadol to prevent Eivah (enmity)
of the present Kohen Gadol (until the present Kohen Gadol dies, when the
Mashu'ach she'Avar may take his place). He also does not perform the Avodah
as a Kohen Hedyot because Ma'alin b'Kodesh v'Lo Moridin (when a person or
object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a
later time; we may only raise it to a higher level). (If the period of
replacement lasted for some years, the returning Kohen Gadol does not have
the power to remove his replacement entirely; rather, both of them continue
to serve as Kohanim Gedolim -- TOSFOS DH v'Chen.)
9a) [line 6] AVAR MACHMAS KEIRUYO - he stepped down temporarily because of
b) [line 7] KEIRUYO (TUM'AS KERI)
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not
enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser,
Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day, he becomes
Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again
(mid'Oraisa -- the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras
Nashim (TY #10) until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall,
after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
10) [line 7] MUCHMAS MUMO
(a) It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in
the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish;
e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g.
boils). [According to the Rambam this is counted as two Lavin (#70 and 71).
According to the Ramban they are counted as one Lav.]
(b) There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that
invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being
offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a
Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an
animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(c) If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah: 1. if he had a Mum that
invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it
b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he receives Malkos if he did it b'Mezid; 2. if he
had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM
Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6); 3. if he had a Mum that only invalidates him
because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkos and his Avodah is
Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)
11) [line 10] SEGAN - the deputy Kohen Gadol, who has been prepared to
officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol, should he become unfit to do the
Avodah (RASHI to Sotah 40b, TOSFOS here, based on the concluding words of
our Sugya; see Insights). According to one Girsa in Yoma 39a, he always
stays at the Kohen Gadol's right-hand side
12) [line 17] HACHAYOSO - keeping him alive [if they are both in danger]