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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Moed Katan 23

MOED KATAN 22 & 23 (19-20 Cheshvan) - dedicated in memory of Chaim Mordechai ben Harav Yisrael Azriel (Feldman) of Milwaukee by his family.



(a) During the first week of Aveilus, the Aveil may not leave his house. During the second week, when he goes to Shul - he changes his place and does not speak.

(b) From the fourth week and onwards, he is like everybody else. During the third week - he may return to his place in Shul, but is still not allowed to speak.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah, Chazal would not have needed to instruct an Aveil not to leave his house during the *first* week, since people are visiting him all the time. What they really said, according to him - is what the Tana Kama said about the first, second, third weeks, but applied to the second third and fourth weeks respectively. According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is from the fifth week that the Aveil is like everybody else.

(a) It is forbidden for an unmarried Aveil whose father or mother died to marry - until after the Sh'loshim.

(b) According to the Tana Kama, an Aveil whose wife dies is forbidden to re-marry until after *three* Yamim-Tovim have passed - according to Rebbi Yehudah, until after the *second* Yom-Tov.

(c) He is permitted to re-marry straight-away if he has no children, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of 'P'ru u'Revu'. Immediately after his wife's burial, Yosef ha'Kohen asked his deceased wife's sister to come and look after her sister's children (i.e. to marry him)?

(d) He actually married her - thirty days later.

(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa forbids ironing, irrespective of whether the clothes are old or new. Rebbi restricts the prohibition to *new* clothes.

(b) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon is even more lenient. According to him - only *new* clothes that are also *white* are forbidden.

(c) When Abaye was an Aveil, he went out during the Sh'loshim with an old ironed coat (like Rebbi). When Rava was an Aveil - he went out with a new red shirt (like Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon).




(a) The B'nei Yehudah and the B'nei Galil argue over whether Aveilus (i.e. things that are normally performed discreetly - see Tosfos DH 'Yesh') applies on Shabbos or not. The one proves that it *does*, from the fact that the Tana of our Mishnah says 'Shabbos Oleh'. His disputant proves that it does *not* - from the fact that he says 'Einah Mafsekes'.


1. The second opinion explains - that the Tana says 'Oleh' in the Reisha, only because he wants to say 'Einan Olin' in the Seifa (but not to teach us anything).
2. The first opinion explains - that the Tana says 'Einah Mafsekes' in the Reisha, only because he wants to say 'Mafsikin' in the Seifa (like we explained in the previous question).
(c) In another Beraisa, the Tana Kama obligates an onen to Bensch and to participate in the Mezuman on Shabbos. Rebbi Yochanan interprets Raban Gamliel's statement: 'Mi'toch she'Nischayev be'Eilu, Nischayev *be'Chulan'* - to include Tashmish ha'Mitah.

(d) We suggest that the Tana Kama holds 'Yesh Aveilus be'Shabbos', and Raban Gamliel holds 'Ein Aveilus be'Shabbos'.

1. The Tana Kama might concede however, that an Aveil is *permitted* to indulge in Tashmish ha'Mitah - because his Meis is not lying in front of him (like he is in the case of an onen).
2. Raban Gamliel, on the other hand, might concede that he is *forbidden* to do so - because whereas, in the case of an onen, Aveilus has not yet come into effect, in the case of an Aveil, it has.
(a) An onen should eat in another room (not in the room where the Meis is lying).

(b) If there is ...

1. ... no other room in the house for him to go - then he should eat in the house of a friend.
2. ... no other house for him to go - then he should make a Mechitzah between him and the Meis.
3. ... nothing with which to make a Mechitzah - then he just turns round and eats.
(c) He should not ...
1. ... lean whilst eating.
2. ... eat meat or drink wine.
(d) He does not ...
1. ... recite a B'rachah before or after eating.
2. ... participate in 'Mezuman'.
3. ... recite K'ri'as Shema, Daven or put on Tefilin.
4. ... perform any other (positive) Mitzvah.
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