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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Moed Katan 20

MOED KATAN 19, 20 - anonymously dedicated my an Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.



(a) The Beraisa says that if someone is buried at the beginning of Yom-Tov, he must begin sitting Shiv'ah after Yom-Tov, and that ...
1. ... work outside the house - may be performed by others on his behalf.
2. ... work inside the house - may be performed by his servants in a discreet manner.
3. ... Nichum Aveilim - no longer applies after Yom-Tov.
(b) We just learned that, according to Rabah, Yom-Tov does *not* negate the Din of Sh'loshim (with regard to someone whose Aveilus began only on Yom-Tov). This Beraisa says that it *does*, proving Rabah wrong.

(c) This applies even to a case where the deceased was buried *on Yom-Tov itself* (and not only when he was buried *before* Yom-Tov).

(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, someone who kept the Din of 'K'fi'as ha'Mitah for three days before Yom-Tov, does not need to continue with it after Yom-Tov. The Chachamim say that even one day before Yom-Tov, and even one hour, will suffice.

(b) This Machlokes is the equivalent of a Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel.

1. Rebbi Eliezer (who was a Shamuti - from the school of Shamai) - holds like Beis Shamai ...
2. ... the Chachamim - like Beis Hillel.
(c) Rava rules like the Tana of our Mishnah, who requires three days before Yom-Tov - the final ruling of Ravina is like the Chachamim, who say even one day, and even one hour is sufficient.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Hafachti *Chageichem* le'Aveil" - that just like Chag ha'Sukos (see Tosfos DH 'Mah') lasts seven days, so too, Aveilus.

(b) We learn the seven days of Aveilus from "Chageichem" (referring to Sukos. We do not learn it from the one day of Shavu'os - because that is reserved for the Limud of Resh Lakish, who quoting Rebbi Yehudah Nesi'ah, said that Aveilus in the case of Shemu'ah Rechokah (when one hears the bad news only later) lasts for only one day (like Shavu'os).

(c) Rebbi Akiva makes a distinction between a Shemu'ah Kerovah and a Shemu'ah Rechokah. The two main periods of mourning in the case of a Shemu'ah Kerovah comprise seven and thirty days, respectively - Shemu'ah Rechokah lasts only one day (and not even a full one, as we shall soon see).

(d) The Rabbanan of Rebbi Akiva do not differentiate between Shemu'ah Kerovah and Shemu'ah Rechokah - both comprise the seven and thirty day periods.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan agrees with Shmuel, that when it comes to Aveilus, we always take the lenient opinion. Consequently, he rules like Rebbi Akiva. Shmuel's principle overrides Rebbi Yochanan's other principle (as even Rebbi Yochanan himself agrees) - that whenever an individual opinion is lenient, and the majority opinion, strict, we take the strict view.

(b) Various other Amora'im follow Rebbi Yochanan's lenient ruling, even as regards one's father and mother. The Beraisa, which confines the one day of a Shemu'ah Rechokah to the other five relatives in the Parshah, but not to one's parents - is a Da'as Yachid (an individual opinion), and is not Halachah.

(c) Rebbi Achaya even observed the seven and thirty days periods of mourning, for his *son*. The Yachid who confines the one day mourning of a Shemu'ah Rechokah to the five relatives besides one's parents - is Elisha ben Avuyah (alias Acher).

(a) Rav, Ayvu's son, was the son of both Rebbi Chiya's brother and of sister - because Ayvu (Rebbi Chiya's paternal brother) married the daughter of Rebbi Chiya's mother, whom she bore from a previous marriage.

(b) When Rebbi Chiya asked Rav whether his (Rav's) father was still alive - Rav (who had just returned from Bavel) replied 'Is my mother alive'? (meaning that that is what Rebbi Chiya ought to ask), because he did not wish to be the conveyor of bad news.

(c) When he repeated this tactic after Rebbi Chiya asked him whether his mother was still lived - Rebbi Chiya (inferring from the fact that he did not answer 'yes' to either question), understood that both (his brother and sister) were dead. So he instructed his servant to take off his shoes (to enact the one day mourning period that a Shemu'ah Rechokah demands, and then to carry his fresh clothes to the bathhouse.




(a) From the fact that Rebbi Chiya instructed his servant to carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse immediately - we learn a. that Shemu'ah Rechokah lasts only one day, and b. that 'Miktzas ha'Yom ke'Kulo'.

(b) We also learn from Rebbi Chiya - that an Aveil is forbidden to wear shoes.

(a) A person who hears of his parents' demise on the thirtieth day after they died: if the thirtieth day falls ...
1. ... on Yom-Tov - he only observes one day, and so does someone who hears about it ...
2. ... on Shabbos.
(b) According to Rebbi Mani, he does *not* tear Keri'ah either. He objects to Rebbi Chanina, who holds that he *does* - on the grounds that anyone who does not observe Shiv'ah, does not tear Keri'ah either.

(c) Someone who had no garment on which to tear Keri'ah when he first heard the bad news, and only obtained one afterwards, is obligated to tear Keri'ah ...

1. ... only if he heard it *within* thirty days - in the case of the five relatives.
2. ... even if he heard it *after* thirty days - in the case of one's parents.
(d) Rebbi Mani, who maintains that, whenever there is no Shiv'ah, there is no Keri'ah either, explains - that this latter statement is not strictly in keeping with the Halachos of Keri'ah, but merely in deference to his parents.
(a) The Beraisa includes all seven relatives mentioned in the Parshah of Kohanim in the obligation to mourn. They are - wife, father, mother, brother (unmarried, paternal) sister, son and daughter.

(b) Rebbi Akiva initially adds three specific relatives (mi'de'Rabbanan), to the list, one male and two female. The male relative is one's maternal brother - the two female ones are one's maternal sister who is still a virgin, and paternal sister even if she is already married.

(c) He also adds the Sh'niyim of the relatives forbidden by the Torah - incorporating (besides one's father's father), his son's son, his daughter's son and his sister's son.

(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar restricts this latter list to two - his son's son and his father's father.

(a) The Chachamim in the previous Beraisa say 'Kol she'Misabel Alav, Misabel Imo' - appear to be saying the same as the Tana Kama (Rebbi Akiva)?

(b) We solve this problem - by equating the Chachamim with the stated opinion of various Amora'im (see next question), who maintain that it is only necessary to mourn with the relative in question, as long as one is together with them in the house; whereas Rebbi Akiva does not differentiate between one location and another.

(c) Rav instructed Chiya his son, and later Rav Huna to Rabah *his* son, when their respective wives were in mourning - to observe mourning together with his wife as long as he was in the same house as her.

(d) When Mar Ukva wanted to observe the Shiv'ah and the Sh'loshim for his brother-in-law (his wife's brother) - Rav Huna commented that perhaps he was keen to eat the special meal that is served to an Aveil (because the obligation to mourn together with one's wife is confined to mourning for a father and mother-in-law only, and does not extend to other relatives.

(a) According to the Tana of the Beraisa, besides being obligated to overturn their beds when their respective fathers-in-law die ...
1. ... a husband is not allowed to force his wife - to wear make-up.
2. ... a wife is not allowed - to wear make-up.
(b) The Beraisa which permits a wife who is in mourning to pour out wine for her husband, and to make his bed and wash his face, hands and feet - must be speaking about relatives other than one's father or mother-in-law, whereas our Beraisa is speaking specifically about *them* (proving this distinction correct).

(c) Ameimar's grandson died. Ameimar tore Keri'ah three times - once when he heard the news, a second time when his son tore Keri'ah in front of him and a third time when he realized that he had mistakenly done so sitting down (and Keri'ah must be performed standing).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "va'Yakam Iyov va'Yikra es Me'ilo" - that Keri'ah must be done standing.

(b) The problem we have with that is - that, if every Mitzvah by which the Torah uses a Lashon of 'standing' must be performed standing, then Yibum too, should be performed standing, seeing as there too, the Torah writes "*ve'Amad* ve'Amar, Lo Chafatzti Lekachtah"; and in fact, we have learned in a Beraisa that Yibum may be performed standing or sitting.

(c) We resolve this Kashya - by differentiating between the Lashon "va'Yakam ... va'Yikra" (which implies that it is obligatory to stand) and "ve'Amad ... ve'Amar" (rather than "ve'Ya'amod ve'Yomar" - which does not).

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