POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by R. Yakov Blinder
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Moed Katan 20
MOED KATAN 19, 20 - anonymously dedicated my an Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah
in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
1) OTHER OPINIONS ABOUT YOM TOV CANCELLING SHIVAH
2. If the burial is DURING the holiday (e.g., the
third-to-last day of the holiday), all seven days of
Shiv'ah are held after the holiday. Again, since
consolation visits were already held for three days
(for they are held during the holiday also), there
is no need for consolation visits after four days of
(d) Answer: The law that the days of the holiday count into
Shloshim refers only to the first case of the Beraisa,
where the burial was BEFORE Yom Tov, and some mourning
rites were oberved already before Yom Tov. Rabbah's
ruling was only about a case where the burial was DURING
3. The third point of the Beraisa is that the days of
the holiday do count into the Shloshim, an explcicit
contradiction to Rabbah (19b, 5:b).
(e) Question: Another Beraisa says explicitly that even when
the burial is during Yom Tov the days of Yom Tov count
into the Shloshim. This is indeed an explicit
contradiction to Rabbah, and he is refuted.
(f) R. Yochanan also disagreed with Rabbah and said that the
days of Yom Tov count into the days of Shloshim in any
(a) A Beraisa lists three opinions:
2) SOURCE FOR SHIVAH
1. R. Eliezer: If Shiv'ah is observed for three days
before Yom Tov, the remainder of Shiv'ah is
cancelled (like the Mishnah above, 19a).
(b) The Halachah:
2. Chachamim: Even if Shiv'ah is observed for an hour
(i.e., a short time) Yom Tov cancels it.
3. R. Elazar Berebi Shimon: The matter is a dispute
between Beis Shammai (who held like opinion #1) and
Beis Hillel (who held #2).
1. R. Yochanan: The Halachah is like opinion #2.
2. Rava: The Halachah is like the Mishnah (opinion #1).
3. Ravina: The Halachah is like opinion #2.
(a) Question: What is the Biblical source for a seven-day
period of mourning?
3) SHEMUAH RECHOKAH
(b) Answer: A Pasuk in Amos, which compares mourning to a
festival. We derive that just as a festival is seven
days, so is mourning.
(c) Question: There is also a one-day festival, Shavuos!
(d) Answer: There is indeed a one-day period of mourning
sometimes - when a person finds out about the death of a
relative a long time after it happened (henceforth:
Shemu'ah Rechokah, or S. R.).
(a) A Beraisa makes two points:
1. There is no Shiv'ah or Shloshim for a S. R., only a
one-day observance, according to R. Akiva. The
Chachamim disagree and require a full Shiv'ah and
Shloshim for S.R.
(b) R. Yochanan: Although the Halachah is usually like the
majority opinion, here there is an overriding rule: The
Halachah is always in accordance with the lenient opinion
(even a minority opinion) when it comes to matters of
mourning. (Therefore, the Halachah is like R. Akiva.) Rav
Chisda and Rava also ruled like this, even for a father
2. The definition of S.R. is: When the news is received
thirty days after the death.
(c) Question: There is a Beraisa that says that although S.R.
is observed only one day, when it comes to a father or
mother it is observed like regular mourning.
(d) Answer: This Beraisa is a minority opinion (Elisha Ben
(e) Rav Achiya observed Shiv'ah and Shloshim for his son, in
(f) There is a story that R. Chiya found out from
Rav (who was his nephew) that his (R. Chiya's) brother
and sister had died (some time earlier), and he told his
attendant to take off his shoes and bring some clothing
to the bathhouse and meet him there. This story teaches
us three things:
4) WHICH RELATIVES DOES ONE MOURN FOR?
1. A mourner may not wear shoes.
(g) Question:The question is that, assuming that R. Achiya
and R. Chiya are the same person, R. Chiya's behavior
(observing only one day for S.R.) contradicts what he did
for his son (3:e).
2. Mourning for a S.R. is observed only one day
(because he went to the bathhouse to bathe right
3. That "one day" is not a whole day, but just a short
while (until the walk to the bathhouse).
(h) Answer: R. Chiya is not the same person as R. Achiya.
(i) R. Yosi Bar Avin: If someone hears about a death on the
thirtieth day after it happened (when it was not yet
S.R.), but it was Yom Tov, so he could not observe any
mourning then, and by the time Yom Tov was over it was
already after the thirtieth day - it is considered a S.R.
A Beraisa says the same thing about when the thirtieth
day is on Shabbos.
(j) Question: Does a S.R. require Keri'ah? (Tosafos: The
question is only for this case, where the news was
received on the thirtieth day which was Shabbos or Yom
Tov; a regular S.R. certainly does not require Keri'ah.
Others: The question is about all S.R.s.)
(k) R. Mani: No Keri'ah is done. There is no such thing as
Keri'ah without Shiv'ah.
(l) R. Chanina: :Keri'ah is done.
(m) Question: A Beraisa says that if someone has no robe for
Keri'ah when he hears about a death, and gets one later,
during Shiv'ah, he does Keri'ah then; if he gets the robe
only after Shiv'ah he does not do Keri'ah. R. Zeira added
that for a mother or father Keri'ah is done even after
Shiv'ah. Hence, we see that there is such a thing as
Keri'ah without Shiv'ah. This is a question on R. Mani's
(n) Answer: This is not a real Keri'ah, just a sign of
respect for one's mother or father.
(a) There is a Beraisa that makes several points:
1. The seven relatives mentioned in Vayikra 21:2-3
(spouse, father, mother, son, daughter, brother,
unmarried sister) are those that one must mourn.
(b) R. Huna: When the Beraisa requires mourning for
second-degree relatives, it does not apply to one's
wife's relatives, except for her parents.
2. The brother and sister mentioned in that verse refer
only to siblings from a common father. The Rabbis
added to the list siblings who share a common
mother. They also added to the list married sisters.
3. One should mourn second-degree relatives as well,
i.e. sons of the above seven (Tosafos) and parents'
a. The above is the opinion of R. Akiva; R. Shimon
Ben Elazar says the only second-degree
relatives to be mourned are grandparents and
b. The Chachamim agree with R. Akiva, but limit
mourning for second-degree relatives to when
one is in the presence of the first-degree
relative who himself is in mourning.
(c) Contradiction: There is one Beraisa that says that when
one's father-in-law or mother-in-law dies he should
observe mourning with his wife. Another Beraisa says that
when a woman is in mourning she should nevertheless do
wifely chores such as making her husband's bed and
washing him up. Since having a bed and washing up are
forbidden to mourners, obviously the husband is not
observing mourning with her.
(d) Resolution: The first Beraisa is only talking about when
the wife's parent died (as it says explicitly); the
second Beraisa is talking about when other relatives of
the wife died. This corresponds exactly with what R. Huna