POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by R. Yakov Blinder
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Moed Katan 19
MOED KATAN 19, 20 - anonymously dedicated my an Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah
in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
1) GEMARA - BERAISOS RELATING TO THE MISHNAH
(a) There is a Beraisa that states three opinions about
making Tefilin, Mezuzos and Tzitzis on C.H.:
2) MISHNAH - SHABBOS AND YOM TOV THAT OCCUR DURING SHIV'AH
1. R. Meir: One may write Tefilin and Mezuzos for his own
use, and spin Tzitzis threads with a Shinui
(identical to R. Yehudah in our Mishnah). He can
also do these jobs for others, but only for free.
(b) Halachah: Rav (or perhaps Rabah) ruled like R. Yosi.
(c) Another Beraisa brings two versions of a disagreement
about how to spin Tzitzis on C.H. with a Shinui:
2. R. Yehudah: He can even get money for doing these jobs
for others, in the following manner: He sells them
his own Tefillin or Mezuzos and then writes more for
3. R. Yosi: He can write as many Tefilin and Mezuzos as
he needs to make a living.
1. Version 1: R. Eliezer says one may spin the thread it
by rubbing it against his thigh, but not using a
stone. The Chachamim permit even the stone.
2. Version 2 (by R. Yehudah): R. Eliezer says one may
spin the thread using a stone, but not a spindle.
The Chachamim permit even a spindle.
3. The Halachah is that it is permitted even with a
(a) If a relative is buried three days before Yom Tov, the
institution of Shiv'ah is cancelled when Yom Tov arrives.
(This Tanna holds that a full three-day period of Shiv'ah
mourning must be held before Yom Tov in order to be
cancelled by Yom Tov.)
3) CLARIFICATION OF 2:b.
(b) If the relative is buried eight days before Yom Yov, the
institution of Shloshim is cancelled when Yom Tov
arrives. (This Tanna holds that the Shloshim must begin
before Yom Tov in order to be cancelled by it. He also
holds that Shiv'ah is seven full days, and the Shloshim
therefore doesn't start until the eighth day.)
(c) Shabbos "counts" (as one of the seven days of Shiv'ah)
and does not cancel the Shiv'ah. Yom Tov (and C.H.)
doesn't "count" and does cancel the Shiv'ah.
(d) Status of one-day holidays in above rule.
1. R. Eliezer: Since the destruction of the Temple
Shavuos is like Shabbos. (But during Temple times
there was a seven-day period of bringing of
sacrifices after Shavuos, and it was like the other
2. Rabban Gamliel: Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (and
certainly Shavuos) are like any Yom Tov.
3. Chachamim: Shavuos is like Yom Tov, while Rosh
Hashanah and Yom Kippur are like Shabbos.
(a) Problem: What is meant by "INSTITIUTION of Shloshim is
cancelled"? Why not just say "Shloshim is cancelled?
(b) Rav: The Shloshim is in fact not automatically cancelled
by Yom Tov. One has to shave before Yom Tov starts, and
this enables the Yom Tov to cancel the Shloshim.
(c) Rav Sheshes: The Shloshim is automatically cancelled by
Yom Tov, even if he did not shave. Don't let the word
"institution" bother you.
(d) A Beraisa is brought, in which one Tanna supports the
view of Rav (and the other Tanna goes like R. Sheshes -
see Tosafos). The Beraisa makes several points:
4) PARTIAL DAYS BEING COUNTED AS WHOLE DAYS.
1. The Tanna Kama holds exactly like Rav said, that
Shloshim is only cancelled if the mourner shaved
before Yom Tov, on the eighth day.
2. Aba Shaul disagrees, and holds that the Shloshim is
cancelled automatically. He also says that Shloshim
is cancelled even if the burial was seven (not
eight) days before Yom Tov. This is because he holds
that you don't need seven full days of Shiv'ah. The
seventh day need be observed only for a small
portion of the day. After that, Shiv'ah is over and
Shloshim begins (on that same day). Therefore, if
the burial was seven days before Yom Tov, the
Shloshim will have begun before Yom Tov.
(a) Rav Chisda: The halachah is like Aba Shaul (3:d:2), that
the last day of a period of mourning doesn't have to be
observed the entire day, but just a small portion of the
day. (Henceforth: Miktzas Hayom Kechulo, or MHK.)
5) SHLOSHIM AND YOM TOV
(b) Rav Chisda adds: In a situation where the eighth day
falls on a Shabbos that is also Erev Yom Tov, when he
will not be able to shave on the eighth day, even the
Chachamim agree that you can say MHK and shave on the
seventh day (Friday), in honor of Yom Tov.
(c) Rav also ruled that MHK like Aba Shaul (3:d:2), and
therefore said that as soon as the consolers leave the
mourner (on the seventh day) he may bathe (i.e., Shiv'ah
(d) Abaye: The Halachah is like Aba Shaul for day 7. On day
30 even the Chachamim agree that MHK.
(e) Rava: The Halachah is not like Aba Shaul, and we do not
say MHK on day 7. However, on day 30, the Halachah is
like Aba Shaul.
(f) Neharda'ei: The Halachah is like Aba Shaul both on day 7
and day 30.
(g) Conclusion: The Halachah is always like the most lenient
known opinion when it comes to matters of mourning - in
this case, Neharda'ei.
(h) Tangent: Where does the thirty-day period of mourning
come from? A mourner is supposed to grow a Pera (long
hair). This word Pera is also found in conjunction with
Nazir, and we know that a Nazir's vow lasts for 30 days.
(i) R. Huna Breih Derav Yehoshua: All (even Aba Shaul) agree
that you don't say MHK on day 3. Therefore, if day 3 is
on Erev Yom Tov (and the Yom Tov is going to cancel the
Shiv'ah, so that today, Erev Yom Tov, day 3, is the last
day of Shiv'ah), he may not bathe until evening.
(a) Abaye's question: In a case where the burial was during
the holiday: It is obvious that one cannot begin counting
the days of Shiv'ah during the holiday. This is because
the laws of Shiv'ah-mourning are not operative during the
holiday. But what about Shloshim? Some prohibitions of
Shloshim (shaving and ironing clothing - Rashi) are
operative during Yom Tov (when no one may shave or
launder), so can one count the days of Yom Tov into the
(b) Rabah's answer: No, the days of Yom Tov do not count
(c) A question is asked from a Beraisa. The Beraisa makes
1. If the burial is less than three days before Yom Tov
(e.g., two days), and the Yom Tov therefore does not
cancel the Shiv'ah (as the Mishnah says), the last
five days of Shiv'ah are held after Yom Tov. During
these five days, however, he may have other people
do work for him. Furthermore, since consolation
visits were already held for seven days (for they
are held during the holiday also), there is no need
for consolation visits during these five days after