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Moed Katan 4

1) [line 3] OMER
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16).
(b) In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12.
(c) The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year, and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

2a) [line 5] YALDAH - saplings
b) [line 6] ZEKEINAH - trees
*3*) [line 9] GAMAR SHABBOS SHABBOS - (These are not the words of Rebbi Yochanan himself, but rather they represent the Gemara's initial understanding of Rebbi Yochanan. All Rebbi Yochanan actually said was "Raban Gamliel was able to repeal the law of Tosefes Shevi'is even if they applied mid'Oraisa from Pesach and on." Rav Ashi later explains that Rebbi Yochanan actually meant something else entirely. HE learned from the source of the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that it applies only during the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash.)

*4*) [line 23] MEI GESHAMIM ATU MEI KILON - (a) the Rabanan prohibited using water collected in a pit to water fields, since collected water resembles a cistern (Kilon). Only water coming from a running source, such as a spring, may be used (RASHI and Rishonim); (b) Alternatively, the Rabanan prohibited using water that is drawn with a *bucket*, even if it is in a shallow pit, since it resembles a cistern. Only water which need not be drawn with a bucket, such as that which reaches the field through an irrigation ditch, may be used (RABEINU CHANANEL -- see Insights)

5) [line 27] AGAMIM - ponds, marshes
6) [line 32] PESIKOS - pools of water
7) [line 32] BEREICHOS - same as previous entry (RASHI)
8) [line 39] ARUGOS - garden patches
9) [line 41] LO YIDLEH - one may not draw water
10) [line 44] L'SHAMTEI - put him in Cherem (excommunicate him)!


11) [line 1] SHELUFEI - removing some of the plants in a garden
12) [line 1] HA'MEIDEL - one who *lessens* the amount of vines (which are growing too close to each other) by uprooting them

13a) [line 7] B'SHEL ANIYIM - the grapes left for the poor -- this is either referring to Pe'ah or Olelos

(a) The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." (Vayikra 19:9-10) - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."
(b) The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh." (Devarim 24:20) - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (that amount that you leave as Pe'ah -- Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow."

c) OLELOS Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "v'Charmecha Lo Se'olel...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("And you shall not glean your vineyard...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.")

14) [line 7] BANKEI - circular furrows for holding water dug at the base of grapevines or other trees

15) [line 8] BEDIDIN - the same as the previous entry
16) [line 10] BAR TZISA'EI - the name of a place in Bavel (the Girsa of the early printings of the Gemara is BEI BARTZISA -- Dikdukei Sofrim #70, possibly Bursif (Shabbos 36a, et. al.), once the boundary of Jewish settlement in Bavel)

17) [line 15] AGAFEHA - its banks
*18*) [line 21] ODER NAMI, KI KA SHAKIL, B'DUCHTEI MANACH LEI - when one hoes, he normally puts the dirt down alongside the ditch. (That is to say, according to one of the two Amora'im, it is only prohibited to dig a canal only if the dirt is placed along the banks of the canal. This is prohibited for two reasons: First, because it looks like he is hoeing in order to plant. Second, because he has made pile of soft dirt along the banks of the canal which improve the land for planting. If the earth is thrown far from the banks of the canal, it is permitted to dig a canal even according to Rebbi Elazar, since *neither* of the two prohibitions apply. The other Amora, though, argues and asserts that even though one throws the dirt far from the banks of the canal, it still looks like one is hoeing the soil, and it is prohibited according to Rebbi Elazar even though no soft dirt is piled along the banks of the canal. (RITVA, see also REBBI AKIVA EIGER)

19) [line 24] ZIVLO - his animal dung (fertilizer)
20) [line 24] OTZAR - (lit. a store) a heap for future use
21) [line 24] AD SHE'YA'AMIK - until he digs a trench for it
22) [line 28] SHE'IM HAYESAH AMUKAH TEFACH, MA'AMIDAH AL SHISHAH TEFACHIM - if the channel (that was originally six Tefachim or an "Amah" deep) has been filled with debris so that it is only one Tefach deep, one may clear out five more Tefachim and make it once again six Tefachim deep

23) [line 29] CHATZI TEFACH AL SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM - a channel that was originally three Tefachim deep and is now only one half Tefach deep

24) [line 30] LO KELUM HU - it is forbidden [because it constitutes Tircha d'Lo Tzarich - labor for no good purpose - since even a three-Tefach-deep channel does not carry water efficiently]

25) [line 33] BAR (HAMADACH) [HAREMACH] - a town near Pumbedisa where the Euphrates River branches off into many rivulets

26) [line 33] L'SHACHUFEI - (a) to uproot tree branches that are growing in the river (RASHI); (b) to deepen the bed of a stream that flowed down a slope so that the waters flowed with greater strength (NIMUKEI YOSEF)

27) [line 33] SACHUSA - a place in Eretz Yisrael, the name of which means "lookout" or "watch post," possibly Mitzpah

28) [line 33] L'MICHRA NAHARA TEMIMA - to dig out a spring that had become completely stopped

29) [line 34] MASA MECHASYA - the city of Mechasya (probably a suburb of Sura)
30) [line 34] L'AKDUCHEI - to remove silt (thin, slippery mud that is soft, sticky and half-liquid); mud that formed a sand bank

31) [line 34] NAHAR BURNITZ - the Burnitz Canal in Bavel

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