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Moed Katan 2

MOED KATAN 2 - dedicated by Ivan Silverman in memory of his father, Shmuel ben Boruch Silverman, Alav ha'Shalom.

1) [line 2] BEIS HA'SHALCHIN - a field that receives its water from irrigation (usually located on a mountain -- RASHI)

2) [line 2] SHEVI'IS
The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless. Anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.

3) [line 5] KILON - (a) a bucket attached to a pole (that is used as a lever) with which water is drawn out of a deep well (MUSAF HE'ARUCH); (b) a water channel, from which water must be drawn (RAV HAI GA'ON, ROSH)

4) [line 5] UGIYOS LA'GEFANIM - circular ditches for holding water, dug around the base of a grapevine

5) [line 9] KILKULEI HA'MAYIM - damage caused to sources of water, such as water channels (RAMBAM) or drinking cisterns (BARTENURA)

6) [line 10] CHOTETIN - (lit. digging or tunneling) to rake, clean a well or water channel

7) [line 12] METZAININ ES HA'KEVAROS - it is permissible to mark graves with lime or plaster so that people who eat Terumah should not walk near them and become Tamei (RASHI 5a)

8) [line 13] KIL'AYIM
It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim," - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field." (Vayikra 19:19), and "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem." - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited." (Devarim 22:9). If one sows Kil'ayim, the produce becomes prohibited ('Kidesh,' from the word in the verse, 'Tikdash').

9) [line 18] BEIS HA'BA'AL - a field that receives enough water from the annual rainfall and does not need to be watered (usually located in a valley -- RASHI)

10) [line 25] TZACHUSA - thirst, i.e. land that requires irrigation
11) [line 25] "V'ATAH AYEF V'YAGE'A" - "when you were thirsty and weary" (Devarim 25:18)

12) [line 27] D'MEYASVUSA - satiated, satisfied, i.e. land that does not require irrigation

13a) [line 30] MAN TANA D'PESEIDA IYN - Who is the Tana who permits [the work involved in preventing] a physical or financial loss (e.g. from not watering a Beis ha'Shalchin)?
b) [line 31] HARVACHA - expansion; physical or financial gain (e.g. from watering a Beis ha'Ba'al)


14) [line 9] HA'MENAKESH - one who weeds

15) [line 10] MASRINAN (HASRA'AH)
If a person transgresses a Lav for which the punishment is the death penalty or lashes, he can only be put to death or lashed if he has been given a proper Hasra'ah (warning). The warning must be, "Abstain, because this action is prohibited and you will be punished with the death penalty (or with lashes) for doing it," or something to that effect. The warning must specifically name the Lav or Av Melachah that the person is about to transgress.

16) [line 11] CHORESH - plowing; preparing the earth for planting
17) [line 12] ZORE'AH - planting [vegetables or grains]; causing plants to grow
18) [line 13] L'RAFUYEI AR'A - to loosen the earth
19) [line 21] ZOMER - pruning
20) [line 22] NOTE'A - planting [trees]
21) [line 22] KOTZER - harvesting; detaching a plant
22) [line 23] HA'MECHAPEH - one who covers [the seeds of different species]
23) [line 24] HA'MEKAYEIM - one who sees plants that are the result of a transgression of the prohibition of Kil'ayim and (a) does not uproot them (RASHI, ARUCH cited by TOSFOS Avodah Zarah 64a); (b) builds a fence or plants a hedge around them to protect them (RASHI Avodah Zarah 64a DH Afilu l'Rebbi Akiva); (c) works the land and causes the plants of Kil'ayim to grow better (RABEINU CHANANEL)

24) [line 33] "SADCHA LO SIZRA KIL'AYIM" - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19)

25) [line 41] "V'ZEH DEVAR HA'SHEMITAH SHAMOT..." - "And this is the manner of the "release" of the Shemitah year: Every creditor who lends anything to his neighbor shall release it; he shall not exact it of his neighbor, or of his brother; because it is called HaSh-m's Release." (Devarim 15:2)

26) [line 43] SHEMITAS KESAFIM
(a) The Torah requires that all loans shall be canceled every seventh year, as it states in Devarim 15:2, "Shamot Kol Ba'al Masheh Yado" - "Every creditor who lends anything to his neighbor shall release it." To demand payment of a loan after the Shemitah year is a violation of the prohibition of "Lo Yigos Es Re'ehu v'Es Achiv" - "he shall not exact it of his neighbor or of his brother" (ibid.)
(b) Hashmatas Kesafim applies mid'Oraisa only when the Yovel year is in practice. Mid'Rabanan it applies today, whether inside or outside of Eretz Yisrael.
(c) Most Rishonim rule that the Shemitah year cancels loans at the *end* of the year, on the last day of the month of Elul. (RAMBAM Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 9:1-4)

27) [last line] AVOS (a) There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah Shabbos Daf 73a (see also Background to Shabbos 73:6).
(b) With regard to the Halachos of the Shemitah year, only the Avos that apply to working the land are prohibited mid'Oraisa (Shabbos 68a). They are 1. Zore' a - planting or causing plants to grow; 2. Choresh - plowing or preparing the earth for planting; and 3. Kotzer - harvesting or detaching a plant. A person who transgresses these Avos Melachos receives Malkos (lashes). (However, there is a Machlokes in the Gemara (3a) as to whether the Melachah of Choresh brings about Malkos mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan.)
(c) Transgressing other Avos Melachos that apply to working the land that are not specified in the verses (Vayikra 25:4-5) brings about the penalty of Malkos mid'Rabanan (
Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 1:3).

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