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Menachos 39

MENACHOS 39 (19 Cheshvan) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Mordechai ben Harav Yisrael Azriel (Feldman) of Milwaukee, by the members of the Feldman family.


(a) (Rabah): The Torah requires making the first knot (closest to the end of the strings; some explain, closest to the garment);
1. If this was only mid'Rabanan, we would not need a verse to permit (putting Techeiles on) a linen garment - the strings could be inserted without tying them, one does not transgress Kilayim for merely inserting wool through a linen garment (and wearing it), since this is not a connection!
2. Rather, the Torah requires making a knot, one would transgress if the Mitzvah did not override the Lav.
(b) (Rabah bar Rav Ada): If a string snapped from its end (where it was attached to the garment), it is Pasul.
(c) Question (Rava - Beraisa): (There is a Shi'ur to the length of Tzitzis when making them, but) remnants and cut-off Tzitzis of any size are Kesherim.
1. Question: What does it mean 'remnants and cut-off Tzitzis'?
2. Suggestion: Remnants is when something remains, 'cut-off' is when nothing remains.
(d) Answer (to both questions - Rav Nachman): No, the Beraisa teaches one matter, remnants of cut-off Tzitzis of any size are Kesherim.
(e) Question: If so, it should have said 'cut-off Tzitzis of any size are Kesherim' - why did it mention Shirei (remnants)?
(f) Answer: This teaches that a Shi'ur (a minimal required size) must remain, enough to make a bow.
(g) (Rabah citing Rav): The string wrapped around the others counts towards the required number of strings.
(h) Rav Yosef: Shmuel said that, not Rav!
(i) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): The string wrapped around the others counts towards the required number of strings.
(a) (Rava citing Shmuel): If the Gedil (windings) take up more space than the Pesil (where the strings lie straight), it is Kosher.
(b) Rav Yosef: Rav said that, not Shmuel!
(c) Version #1 - (Rav Huna bar Yehudah citing Rav): If the windings take up more space than the Pesil, it is Kosher.
(d) Version #2 - R. Chiya brei d'Rav Noson - (Rav Huna citing Rav): If the windings take up more space than the Pesil, it is Kosher;
1. Even if there is only one Chulyah (set of windings), it is Kosher.
2. The ideal proportion is one third windings and two thirds Pesil.
(e) Question: How big should the Chulyah be?
(f) Answer (Beraisa - Rebbi): It must be at least three windings.
(g) (Beraisa): On should not have less than seven (Chulyos on each corner; some explain, windings in each Chulyah), corresponding to the Reki'yim (firmament between levels of Shamayim);
1. One should not have more than 13, corresponding to the seven Reki'yim and the spaces between them.
(h) (Beraisa): One should begin (the first Chulyah) with Lavan, for it says "Ha'Kanaf" - strings similar to the corner;
1. One should end (the last Chulyah) with Lavan, for we ascend in Kedushah, we do not descend (and since the Torah said that we should start with Lavan, it is considered more Kadosh.)
(i) A man was wearing a garment that was entirely Techeiles; Gedil was attached, but no Pesil.

1. Rav: The garment is beautiful, but not the Tzitzis;
2. Rabah bar bar Chanah: The garment is beautiful, and also the Tzitzis.
(j) Question: What do they argue about?
(k) Answer: The Torah calls Tzitzis "Gedilim", elsewhere it says "Pesil";
1. Rabah bar bar Chanah expounds, they must be Gedil (wound) or Pesil (straight);
2. Rav say that we always require Pesil - Gedilim teaches about the number of strings:
i. 'Gedil' connotes two, Gedilim connotes four - we must make Gedilim and (attach them to the corner and double them over) and make the Pesil from the Gedilim (wrap them with one of the eight ends themselves; alternatively, the Pesil must be after the Gedilim.)
(a) (Shmuel): Woolen (Lavan) strings exempt (i.e. fulfill the Mitzvah for) a linen garment.
(b) Question: Do linen strings exempt a woolen garment?
1. Wool can be used for Lavan, since it can be used for Techeiles (which must always be wool), but we have no source to use linen in a wool garment;
2. Or, perhaps "Lo Silbash Sha'atnez Tzemer u'Fishtim Yachdav Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach" permits linen strings in a woolen garment and wool strings in a linen garment;
(c) Answer: We learn from Rachbah (that they do).
1. (Rachbah): Wool strings exempt a linen garment, linen strings exempt a woolen garment;
2. Wool and linen strings exempt all garments, even silk, Klach (waste silk) or Serikin (carded flax);
(d) Rachbah argues with Rav Nachman.
1. (Rav Nachman): Silk is exempt from Tzitzis.
(e) Question (Rava - Beraisa): One must put Tzitzis on garments of silk, Klach and Serikin.
(f) Answer: That is mid'Rabanan, mid'Oraisa they are exempt.
(g) Question (end of the Beraisa): Wool and linen strings exempt all of these.
1. We understand this if the Mitzvah applies mid'Oraisa, therefore, Kilayim is permitted;
2. But if the Mitzvah applies only mid'Rabanan, how can this override Kilayim mid'Oraisa?!
(h) Answer: It means, wool *or* linen strings exempt all of these (but wool and linen may not be put on the same garment).
(i) Support (end of the Beraisa): (Strings of) each of these materials exempts its own kind, but not other materials.
1. We understand this if the Mitzvah is mid'Rabanan - Chachamim enacted that they are liable, and they enacted that the same species may be used for Tzitzis.
2. But if it is mid'Oraisa, the Torah requires strings of wool or linen!
(j) Rejection: The Torah also allows the material itself, as Rava expounded.
(k) Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ha'Kanaf" - strings similar to the corner;
1. It also says "Tzemer u'Fishtim"!
(l) Resolution: Wool or linen exempts any material; any other material only exempts a garment of that material.
(m) Rav Nachman holds like Tana d'vei R. Yishmael.
1. (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The Torah discusses garments without specifying the material (e.g. in the Parshah of Tzitzis), regarding other garments it specifies (wool and linen, e.g. regarding Tzara'as, or Kilayim);
2. Just as the latter refers to wool and linen, also the former.
(n) (Abaye): The following Tana d'vei R. Yishmael argues with the previous Tana d'vei R. Yishmael!
1. (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael) Suggestion: "Beged" refers only to a garment of (sheep's) wool or linen (Rashi - only they receive Tzara'as; Tosfos - only they are Mekabel Tum'as Sheretz).
2. Rejection: "O (b')Beged" - this includes garments of camel's, rabbit's and goat's wool, silk, Klach or Serikin (and all other materials).
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