BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Menachos 61
MENACHOS 61 - has been sponsored through a generous gift from Eli
Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, and family.
1) [line 13] "V'HERIM [HA'KOHEN MIN HA'MINCHAH ES AZKARASAH...]" - "And [the
Kohen] shall lift up [its remembrance...]" (Vayikra 2:9)
2) [line 14] "V'HERIM MIMENU B'KUMTZO" - "and he shall lift up in his hand,
fist" (Vayikra 6:8)
3) [line 18] HA'BIKURIM K'DIVREI REBBI ELIEZER BEN YAKOV (BIKURIM)
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge
in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah
Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis
Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land...
and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits
of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard)
of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While
the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the *Mikra Bikurim*, specific
verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of
Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of
fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM
Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the
Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons
were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They
were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the
land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes,
figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person
eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered
Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the
Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be
returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
(d) According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, at one point in the process of
bringing the Bikurim, the owner of the fruits, together with the Kohen,
performs Tenufah (see Background to Menachos 60:3) on the basket of Bikurim.
Our Gemara will bring the teaching from which he learns this.
4a) [line 19] EIMUREI SHALMEI YACHID V'CHAZEH VA'SHOK SHELAHEN (KORBAN
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos
may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17,
6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21,
7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from
male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may
therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern
part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the
animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and
southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a
flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought
as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely
burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the
silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the
Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount
of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified
in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (right hind thigh) of the Shelamim were
given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the
Korban ("Eimurim,") were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10,
14-15). The Eimurim consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs;
2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on
the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or
a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
(d) The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban
inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in
any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
5) [line 20] ACHERIM - women (as the Gemara shows on Daf 61b, but see
RASHASH and YA'AVETZ there)
6) [line 23] MOLICH U'MEVI MA'ALEH U'MORID - waves them in all four
directions and upward and downward
7) [line 24] "ASHER HUNAF VA'ASHER HURAM" - "that was waved and that was
lifted" (Shemos 29:27)
8) [line 25] TENUFAH HAYESAH BA'MIZRACH - Tenufah was [valid even when it
was] performed in the east (i.e. east of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon) (RASHI)
9) [line 25] HAGASHAH BA'MA'ARAV - Hagashah was performed in the west (i.e.
west of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, which was the holiest part of the Azarah
of the Beis ha'Mikdash since it was closest to the entrance of the Beis
10) [line 26] TENUFOS KODMOS L'HAGASHOS - [when a Korban requires Tenufah
and Hagashah, such as the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kena'os] the
Tenufos were performed before the Hagashos
11a) [line 29] SHELOSHAH MININ TE'UNIN SHELOSHAH MITZVOS - three types of
Korbanos require three Mitzvos
b) [line 30] SHTAYIM B'CHOL ACHAS V'ACHAS - (lit. two in each one) but of
those three Mitzvos, each type of Korban only requires *two* of the Mitzvos
12) [line 37] "V'HIKRIV OSO L'ASHAM V'ES LOG HA'SHAMEN V'HENIF OSAM
TENUFAH" - "and he shall offer it as a Korban Asham and the Log of olive
oil, and he shall wave them [in the Mitzvah of] Tenufah" (Vayikra 14:12)
13) [line 42] BA'MIZRACH - Tenufah was [valid even when it was] performed in
the east (i.e. east of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, which was also considered
"Lifnei HaSh-m") (RASHI)
14) [line 42] V'HA AMAR "'LIFNEI HASH-M' - YACHOL BA'MA'ARAV" - but however,
with regard to the Hagashah of the Menachos, the assumption of the Gemara
(Menachos 19a) is that "Lifnei HaSh-m" is in the west
15) [line 43] D'IKRI CHATAS - since it is compared to a Chatas (as the verse
states, "Kodesh Kodashim Hi, ka'Chatas vecha'Asham" - "it is the among the
holiest Korbanos, like the Korban Chatas and the Korban Asham" (Vayikra
16) [line 44] CHATAS TE'UNAH YESOD - the Korban Chatas needs the Yesod
(foundation) [of the Mizbe'ach, upon which the Sheyarei ha'Dam are poured
(a) If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he
is liable to Kares b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to bring a Korban
Chatas. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. Since it is one of the
Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may only be
slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the
owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses
(b) The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:
1. SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach,
the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut two Simanim (the trachea
and the esophagus).
(c) The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured onto the
southern Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Kohanim eat the
rest of the Chatas Behemah in the Azarah.
2. KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a
utensil. The Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned
on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.
3. HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
4. NESINAS HA'DAM - Using his finger, the Kohen applies some of the blood to
each of the four Keranos of the Mizbe'ach.
5. HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire on the
17) [line 44] KEREN DEROMIS MIZRACHIS LO HAYAH LO YESOD - the southeastern
corner of the Mizbe'ach did not have a Yesod (foundation) (MIZBE'ACH
(a) The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete
and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom
platform) was 32 Amos long, 32 Amos wide and 1 Amah high. The second
platform was 30 Amos long, 30 Amos wide and 5 Amos high. The third platform
(which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices
were offered, was 28 Amos long, 28 Amos wide, and 3 Amos high. A Keren
(horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was poured on each corner of the upper
platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)
(b) The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on
two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the
eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern
and western corners. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner.
The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach
above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Zevachim 37a, based upon
Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of animal Korbanos was poured
directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra
4:7; etc.). Omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement; it is
not a requirement for atonement.
(c) The Kohanim walked upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out
one Amah on each side past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev",
because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.
(d) The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e) The ramp was 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and was separated from the
south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim
62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that
it covered the Sovev.
18) [line 47] "V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN [HA'TENE MI'YADECHA V'HINICHO...]" - "And
the Kohen shall take [the basket from your hand and shall put it down...]"
19) [last line] "YADAV TEVI'ENAH" - "His (the owner's) hands shall bring it
(the portion of the Korban Shelamim that will be offered to HaSh-m)"
20) [line 4] "V'HINACHTO" - "and he shall place it (the basket of Bikurim)
[before HaSh-m]" (Devarim 26:10)
21) [line 5] HANACHAH - placing the basket of Bikurim before the Mibe'ach
(see above, entry #3)
22) [line 7] HO'IL U'FASACH BO HA'KASUV TECHILAH - since he uses the word
that is mentioned in the earlier verse (Devarim 26:4) as opposed to Rebbi
Yehudah, who uses the word that is mentioned in the later verse (Devarim
23) [line 9] HO'IL V'RAV GUVREI - (lit. since his strength is great) since
he is a great Torah scholar
24) [line 18] SEMICHAH
(a) Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all
his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as
described in Vayikra (1:4).
(b) Women and Nochrim are exempt from performing Semichah, since the verse
states "Daber El Benei Yisrael... v'Samach..." (Vayikra 1:2-4).
25) [line 25] GERIM - converts
26) [line 25] AVADIM MESHUCHRARIN - freed Nochri slaves, who are obligated
in the same Mitzvos that women are obligated
27) [line 26] "HA'MAKRIV" - "he who offers [his Korban Shelamim]" (Vayikra
7:29) - In the conclusion of the Gemara, this word is used to teach that
during Tenufah, the Kohen holds the Eimurim along with the owner of the
Korban, *and* that Gerim and Avadim Meshuchrarim are required to perform
Tenufah (see YOSEF DA'AS, She'eilos u'Seshuvos l'Sikum, end of Daf 61b)