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Menachos 38

1) [line 1] ME'HASAM AMAR LEI - [and there are those who relate the incident that] he (Ravina) told him (Mar bar Rav Ashi) [that his Tzitzis were severed] from there (when they were first severed, in Reshus ha'Rabim)

There are four Reshuyos (domains) with regard to the Halachos of Shabbos: Reshus ha'Rabim; Reshus ha'Yachid; Karmelis; Makom Petur. (Depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, an Amah is approximately equal to 45.6, 48 or 57.6 cm, and a Tefach is approximately equal to 7.6, 8 or 9.6 cm.)

1. RESHUS HA'RABIM (the public domain) includes 16-Amah-wide thoroughfares or streets that are open at both ends, and open plazas that can hold many people at the same time. (According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must use the area for it to be considered Reshus ha'Rabim, see Insights to Shabbos 6b.)
2. RESHUS HA'YACHID (the private domain) is comprised of spaces that have an area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten-Tefach-high partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition). A ten-Tefach-high mound that is four by four Tefachim wide at its top is also a Reshus ha'Yachid. Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid are Reshuyos that are dictated by the Torah. Transferring objects from one to the other is prohibited mid'Oraisa.
3. KARMELIS is the term that the Rabanan gave to certain places and objects that bear similarities to both Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, even though they do not meet all the requirements for either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis is to be given the properties of both Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent in any given situation, in order to prevent a person from doing a Melachah mid'Oraisa. Some examples of Karmelis are the sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is four by four Tefachim but with a height not greater than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced-in area.
4. MAKOM PETUR, in general, are those places and objects that do not fulfill *any* of the above requirements. Transferring from them to one of the other three Reshuyos is permitted (as long as one does not transfer from Reshus ha'Yachid to a Makom Petur, and then from there to a Reshus ha'Rabim, or vice versa). Some examples of Makom Petur are a doorstep with an area less than four by four Tefachim, a pole in Reshus ha'Rabim with an area less than four by four Tefachim and a height not greater than ten Tefachim and the airspace above Reshus ha'Rabim (above a height of ten Tefachim). See Shabbos, Charts #1-2.
*****PEREK #4 HA'TECHELES*****

3) [line 8] HA'TECHELES
(a) There is a Mitzvah to wear Tzitzis (fringes) on four-cornered garments, as it states in the Torah (Devarim 22:12). Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue (Menachos 41b) whether one must double over three strings through each hole of the garment (Beis Hillel), or whether one must double over four strings (Beis Shamai).
(b) Techeles is a greenish-blue dye used to dye some of the woolen strings used for Tzitzis. The dye is obtained from the Chilazon, the underwater snail murex trunculus. The "Pesil Techeles" - the "string of Techeles" (Bamidbar 15:38) is the most important part of a four-cornered garment since through it one is able to completely fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis mid'Oraisa. The exact process for obtaining the Techeles dye is not known today (see Insights to Shabbos 75:1).

4) [line 8] EINAH ME'AKEVES - does not prevent [one from fulfilling the Mitzvah] (e.g. if one does not have strings of Techeles, that does not stop him from fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tzitzis with white strings and vice versa -- RASHI)

5) [line 8] HA'LAVAN - the white strings of the Tzitzis
6) [line 14] MIN KANAF - (lit. the same [material] as the corner [of the garment]) that is, the white strings (since most garments at the time of the Mishnah were made from linen, which is white -- RASHI)

7) [line 16] AD D'IKA TARVAIHU B'CHAD - only if the two of them (Techeles and Lavan) are together

8) [line 17] KOL CHAD LECHUDEI MASHMA - the implication [of the verses] is each one by itself [also fulfills the Mitzvah]

9) [line 19] (L'KADEM) [L'HAKDIM] - when the Mishnah states that the Techeles does not prevent the Lavan and vice versa, it is teaching that even though the Tzitzis should be made by inserting the Lavan strings into the garment *before* the Techeles strings (since the Lavan strings are mentioned first in the verse), if the Techeles was inserted first, the Tzitzis are still valid (RASHI)

10) [last line] SHE'CHISER MITZVAH - he has caused himself to lack a Mitzvah, as the Gemara will explain


11) [line 2] IKUVEI ME'AKVEI A'HADADEI - (lit. each one prevents the other) lacking the Mitzvah of white strings prevents one from fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tzitzis

12) [line 6] MAI HI? - what is the case [of Techeles d'Eino Me'akeves Es ha'Lavan, since the Lavan strings are *meant* to be inserted first]

13) [line 9] ARYOCH - Shmuel, who was called by this name because he was compared to a king (Reicha means king or nobleman in Aramaic). (a) the Halachah follows his opinion in monetary matters just like "Dina d'Malchusa Dina" ("the laws of kingdoms are binding") (RASHI); (b) the Halachah follows his opinion in monetary matters just like a king, and the name "Aryoch" is the name of a king in the verse "Aryoch Melech Elasar" - "Aryoch, the king of Elasar" (Bereishis 14:1) (RASHI to Chulin 76b; the name of this king was chosen because the word "Ari," "lion," is embedded in it -- TOSFOS to Shabbos ibid. DH Aryoch); (c) He was thoroughly versed in the Halachos of monetary matters and he sat in judgment like a king who presides over the court in his land (TOSFOS RI HA'ZAKEN to Kidushin 39a, RASHI to Shabbos 53a)

14) [line 9] LO SEISIV! A'KAR'ACH! - Do not sit down, [but rather stand] on your feet! (TOSFOS to Nazir 24b DH Amar)

15) [line 21] MIDEI TZIV'A KA GARIM?! - (a) Is the color [of the garment] responsible [for the color of the strings that are used in the Mitzvah of Tzitzis]? (RASHI); (b) [Why do we need white strings in an all-Techeles garment?] Does the color [of the garment] cause [the color of the non-Techeles strings to be different from Techeles? The Mitzvah of the Torah is to have strings that are "Min Kenaf," "the color of the garment," and strings of Techeles. As such, tying four strings of Techeles onto an all-Techeles garment fulfills the requirements of "Min Kenaf" and "Pesil Techeles"] (SEFAS EMES, as cited by YOSEF DA'AS); (c) The color of the garment is not what defines the term "Min Kenaf," rather, the material with which the garment is made defines "Min Kenaf." As such, a woolen garment, even if it is colored all-Techeles, should require white woolen strings to fulfill "Min Kenaf" and afterwards Techeles string to fulfill "Pesil Techeles" (SEFAS EMES, as cited by YOSEF DA'AS)

16) [line 22] GARDUMIN - the remainder of a string of the Tzitzis
17) [line 22] IGARDAM - it was cut off, leaving some string remaining
17) [line 24] GARDUMEI EZOV - the remainder of the branches of hyssop, used in the Mitzvos of Tahras Metzora (see Background to Menachos 27:20), Bayis ha'Menuga (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV) and Taharas Teme'ei Mes (see Background to Menachos 27:17)

18) [line 26] KEDEI L'ANVAN - enough to tie a bow in them

19) [line 28] TEIKU
The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:

  1. It is sealed in its container ("Tik") (ARUCH, Erech Tik).
  2. Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand" (MUSAF HA'ARUCH).
  3. Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions" (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos).
20) [line 28] ALIMEI - thick [threads]
21) [line 29] D'LO MI'ANVEI - that cannot be tied in a bow [due to their thickness]
22) [line 31] D'MINKAR MITZVASAIHU - the fact that they were tied there as a Mitzvah is obvious

23) [line 35] MATIL - he ties (lit. places)
24) [line 35] SHEMA MINAH - we learn from this (from the ruling of Benei Rebbi Chiya that Gardumei Techeles are Kesheirim and do not invalidate the Tzitzis) [that one must ties knots in between the Chulyos so that the fringes do not unravel. In the case of the Gardumin, the knots present prevent the fringes from unraveling (RASHI)]

25) [line 35] CHULYA - when one string of the Tzitzis is wound around the rest of them to create the fringe for the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, a Chulya is defined as (a) the windings of the string between two knots (RASHI); (b) three windings of the string (TOSFOS)

26) [last line] D'ISHTERI LEI ILA'I - if the *end* knot were to be untied, the entire fringe would unravel [were it not for the fact that knots are tied in between the Chulyos]

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