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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Megilah 2

MEGILAH 2-5 (Elul 27-Rosh Hashanah 5760) - have been dedicated by Dr. Jack and Sarah Dimenstein of Zurich Switzerland. May they be blessed with a year of health and prosperity, physical and spiritual!

Please note that unless where otherwise indicated, we follow the explanation of Rashi.
Our notes and comments do not necessarily have a bearing on the practical Halachah.


(a) On which days can the Megilah be read?

(b) Who reads it ...

  1. ... on the fifteenth?
  2. ... on the fourteenth?
(c) When do the villagers read it? Are they obligated to read it on those days?
2) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, when the fourteenth falls ...
  1. ... on Sunday, when do each of the three sections of Yisrael read the Megilah?
  2. ... on Friday, when do the townspeople and the Mukafin read it?
  3. ... on Shabbos, when do the townspeople read it?
(a) On what grounds does the Gemara reject its original Kashya 'From where do we know that the Megilah can be read on the eleventh, the twelfth and the thirteenth'?

(b) Then what *does* the questioner mean to ask?

(c) Why can it not have been the later Chachamim who instituted those dates?

(d) Rav Sh'man bar Aba quoting Rebbi Yochanan learns the dates of the villagers from the Pasuk in Esther "Lekayem es Yemei ha'Purim ha'Eileh *bi'Zemaneihem*".
Why can "Zemaneihem" not come ...

  1. ... for itself (because of the two days, the fourteenth and the fifteenth, on which the Megilah is read)?
  2. ... to teach us that those who read on the fourteenth do not read on the fifteenth, and vice-versa?
(a) How do we know to give the villagers only those two days and no more?

(b) In that case, perhaps we should give only them only the twelfth and the thirteenth? On what grounds do we give them the eleventh, too?

(c) And how do we know that those two days are the eleventh and the twelfth of Adar, and not the sixteenth and the seventeenth?

(a) How does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini learn the two extra days of the villagers from the Pasuk in Esther "ka'Yamim Asher Nachu Bahem ha'Yehudim"?

(b) Why does ...

  1. ... Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini not want to learn it from "Zemaneihem" (like Rav Sh'man bar Aba)?
  2. ... Rav Sh'man bar Aba not want to learn it from "*ka'Yamim* Asher Nachu Bahem ha'Yehudim" (like Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini)?
(a) In the first Lashon, Rabah bar bar Chanah quoting Rebbi Yochanan establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Akiva S'timta'ah.
What does 'S'timta'ah' mean?

(b) Why can it not refer to the fact that so many of the 'Stams' are learned by Rebbi Akiva's disciples (S'tam Mishnah like Rebbi Meir, S'tam Tosefta like Rebbi Nechemyah and S'tam Sifra like Rebbi Yehudah), and all, according to their Rebbe, Rebbi Akiva?

(c) Rabah bar bar Chanah concludes that the Rabbanan argue with Rebbi Akiva. What do they say, according to him?

(a) Rebbi Yehudah (in a Beraisa in Ta'anis) maintains that nowadays, the villagers are obligated to Read the Megilah on the fourteenth.
Why is that?

(b) We see from there, that in the days of the Chachamim, the villagers *were* permitted to Read the Megilah on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Adar (a Kashya on Rabah bar bar Chanah quoting Rebbi Yochanan).
Why must the Rabbanan who lived in the original era referred to by Rebbi Yehudah be the Chachamim, and not Rebbi Akiva?

(c) What does Rabah bar bar Chanah quoting Rebbi Yochanan say, according to the second Lashon?

Answers to questions



(a) Rebbi Yehudah in a Mishnah later, restricts the concession of the villagers to places where they tend to go into town on Mondays and Thursdays, but not there where they do not.
How does that clash with his previous statement (from the Beraisa in Ta'anis - that nowadays, the villagers are obligated to Read the Megilah on the fourteenth [see above 7a.])?

(b) Like whom does Rav Ashi establish the Beraisa in order to resolve this discrepancy?

(c) But how can he do that? Whenever one comes across a contradiction between two statements said by Tana'im, can one just establish one of them like any Tana one pleases, in order to answer the Kashya?

(a) The Pasuk in Esther explicitly writes that the towns read the Megilah on the fourteenth. We cannot possibly infer from there that the Mukafin do not read the Megilah at all, for two reasons: one of them, because they are Jews just as much as the townspeople.
What is the other?

(b) The Pasuk writes "Liheyos Osim es Yom Arba'ah-Asar ... ve'es Yom Chamishah-Asar.
How do we know that the Mukafin do not ...

  1. ... Read the Megilah twice, both on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth?
  2. ... have a choice to Read either on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth?
  3. ... Read it on the thirteenth?
(c) The above Pasuk speaks about 'Asiyah' (the celebrations of Purim). From where do we know that the same applies to the 'Zechirah' (Reading the Megilah)?
(a) From where does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah learn that cities surrounded by a wall from the time of Achashveirosh (and not necessarily from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun) read on the fifteenth?

(b) What do the Rabbanan learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "P'razi" "P'razi" (by Batei Arei Chomah)?

(c) What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(d) What is the problem with Shushan, according to the Rabbanan?

(a) According to the Rabbanan, how do we try to explain the Pasuk in Esther ...
  1. ... "Medinah u'Medinah"?
  2. ... "Ir va'Ir"?
(b) What problem does this create on Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah?

(c) What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah retort?

(d) He goes on to learn Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's (dual) Halachah from "Medinah u'Medinah" (according to the Chachamim) or from "Ir va'Ir" (according to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah).
What does Rebbi ben Levi say?

(a) How close is considered close in this regard?

(b) Then why did Rebbi Yirmiyah (or Rebbi Chiya bar Aba) give the Shiur as 'from Chamsan till Teveryah'?

Answers to questions

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