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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 31



(a) Nowadays in Chutz la'Aretz (when there are two days Yom-Tov) ...
1. ... one reads the Haftarah of Yoshiyah ha'Melech from Melachim 2 - on the second day of Pesach?
2. ... one Leins on the four days of Chol ha'Mo'ed (whose Si'man is 'M.a.p.u.' - i.e. 'Mem', 'Aleph', 'Pey', 'Vav') - "*M*ishchu u'K'chu Lachem Tzon" (Bo); "*I*m Kesef Talveh" (Mishpatim); "*P*'sal Lecha" (Ki Sisa); "*v*a'Yedaber Hashem .. " (Beha'aloscha).
(b) On the seventh day of Pesach ...
1. ... they (and we) Lein Shiras ha'Yam - because it was on that night that they crossed the Yam-Suf.
2. ... they (and we) read the Haftarah "va'Yedaber David" because is a Shirah, besides the fact that it refers to Yetzi'as Mitzra'im.
(c) On the eighth day of Pesach - they Lein "Kol ha'B'chor" (Re'ei).
(d) They read the Haftarah of "Od ha'Yom" from Yeshayah on the eighth day - because the downfall of Sancheriv (about which it speaks) took place on Pesach.
(a) In practice, the current Minhag largely differs from the above Beraisa. The first half of the Si'man for all the eight days is 'M'shach' ("Mishchu, u'K'chu Lachem Tzon" - Bo); 'Tura' ("Shor O Kesef" - Emor); 'Kadeish' ("Kadeish Li Kol Bechor" - Bo) 'be'Kaspa' ("Im Kesef Talveh - Mishpatim). The second half is 'Pasal' ("P'sol Lecha" - Ki Sisa) 'be'Madbera' ("va'Yedaber Hashem" - Beha'aloscha) 'Shelach' ("va'Yehi be'Shalach Par'oh - Beshalach) 'Buchra' ("Kol ha'B'chor" - Re'ei).

(b) On Shavu'os, says the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, one Leins "Shiv'ah Shavu'os" (Re'ei), and reads the Haftarah from Chavakuk; according to Acheirim (Rebbi Meir), one Leins "ba'Chodesh ha'Shelishi" (Yisro) and the Haftarah in 'Ma'aseh ha'Merkavah'. In Chutz la'Aretz nowadays - one does like both opinions, but in the reverse order.

(c) On Rosh Hashanah, according to the Tana Kama, one Leins "ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" (Pinchas), and the Haftarah, the episode of Chanah (Shmuel) ; others (Rebbi Nasan) say, "va'Hashem Pakad es Sarah" (va'Yeira), and the Haftarah "ha'Vein Yakir Li Ephrayim" (Yirmiyah). On the first day, we follow the opinion of Rebbi Nasan. On the second day ...

1. ... we Lein - the Akeidah (the continuation of what we Leined on the first day).
2. ... we read the Haftarah of "ha'Vein Yakir Li Ephrayim".
(d) We Lein the Haftarah of ...
1. ... Chanah on the first day of Rosh Hashanah - because that is the day on which Chanah was remembered (i.e. when she became pregnant).
2. ... "ha'Vein Yakir Li Ephrayim" on the second - because it contains the phrases "Zachor Ezkerenu" and "Racheim Arachmenu" (Zichronos which are most appropriate for Yom ha'Zikaron).
3) The one Yom-Tov d'Oraysa on which the entire Leining remains unchanged from the ruling of the Beraisa, is Yom Kipur.
1. In the morning - we Lein - the Avodah of Yom Kipur from Acharei-Mos, and the Haftarah from Yeshayah "Ki Choh Amar Hashem Ram ve'Nisa" (which points out the difference between fake Teshuvah and the genuine article).
2. At Minchah - we Lein the Parshah of Arayos (to remind the sinners to desist) and the Haftarah, Seifer Yonah - which deals with the Teshuvah of the people of Ninvei.
(a) Based on one of the Pesukim in the Haftarah on Yom Kipur (Yeshayah), Rebbi Yochanan makes a statement. He learns from the Pasuk "Koh Amar Hashem, 'Ram ve'Nisa Shochen Ad ve'Kadosh ... ve'es Daka u'Sh'fal Ru'ach' " - that where Hashem's greatness is mentioned, there one will also find His humility.

(b) He has another source for this in a Pasuk in Torah ("Ki Hashem Elokeichem Hu Elokei ha'Elohim v'Adonei ha'Adonim ... Oseh Mishpat Yasom ve'Almanah" - Eikev), and a third Pasuk in Kesuvim ("Solu la'Rochev ba'Aravos be'Kah Shemo ... Avi Yesomim ve'Dayan Almanos").

(c) According to the Tana of the Beraisa, on the first day of Sukos we Lein the Parshah of Mo'ados from Emor, and the Haftarah "Hinei Yom Hashem Bo" (Zecharyah), because it deals with the celebration of Chag ha'Sukos. On the second day in Chutz la'Aretz ...

1. ... they Lein - the same as the first day.
2. ... they read (from Melachim 1) - "va'Yikahalu el ha'Melech Shlomoh" (which follows the Chanukas Beis ha'Mikdash, which covered Sukos).
(a) On Shemini Atzeres, they Lein "Kol ha'Bechor" (Re'ei). They begin already from "Aser te'Aser" (which they do not do on Pesach) - because it contains many Mitzvos, mainly concerning Matnos Aniyim, which are currently applicable at that time of year).

(b) The Haftarah is from Melachim "va'Yikahalu el ha'Melech Shlomoh" - because it mentions there that on Shemini Atzeres, Shlomoh sent the people home.

(c) On Simchas Torah, they Lein "ve'Zos ha'B'rachah". According to the Tana of the Beraisa, they read the Haftarah - "va'Ya'amod Shlomoh (Melachim 1), which deals with the inauguration of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which covered Sukos (see Tosfos DH 'le'Machar').

(a) They (and we) Lein both on Chol ha'Mo'ed Pesach and on Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos - "Re'ei Atah Omer Elai" (Ki Sisa), which contains the Mitzvos of Shabbos, Yom-Tov and above all, the source for Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(b) They read the Haftarah ...

1. ... of the dry bones of Yechezkel on Shabbos, Chol ha'Mo'ed Pesach - because purportedly, Techi'as ha'Meisim will take place on Pesach (though this is not the reason that Rashi gives).
2. ... of Gog and Magog on Shabbos, Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos - because similarly, the battle of Gog and Magog will take place on Sukos.
(c) On Chanukah, we Lein the Parshah of the Chanukas ha'Nesi'im (Naso). The Haftarah that we read ...
1. ... on the *first* Shabbos of Chanukah - is that of the Neiros of Zecharyah (Zecharyah).
2. ... on the *second* Shabbos of Chanukah (should Chanukah fall on Shabbos) - is that of the Menoros that Shlomoh had made for the Beis Hamikdash (Melachim 1).
(d) On Purim, we Lein "va'Yavo Amalek", and on Rosh Chodesh, "u'v'Roshei Chodsheichem". The Haftarah that we read when Rosh Chodesh falls ...
1. ... on Shabbos is - "ve'Hayah Midei Chodesh be'Chodsho" (Yeshayah).
2. ... on Sunday is - "Machar Chodesh" (Shmuel 1).



(a) When Rosh Chodesh Av falls on Shabbos, we read the Haftarah from Yeshayah "Chodsheichem u'Mo'adeichem San'ah Nafshi, Hayu Alai la'Torach" (according to Rav Huna Amar Rav - see Tosfos DH 'Rosh Chodesh'). "Hayu Alai la'Torach" - is Hashem's reaction to Yisrael, who challenged Him to tell them what hard punishment He was going to mete out to them.

(b) According to Rav Huna Amar Rav, the Haftarah that we read on Tish'ah be'Av is - "Eichah Haysah le'Zonah" (the same paragraph as "Chodsheichem u'Mo'adeichem San'ah Nafshi ... ").

(c) Various Amora'im give various rulings as to what one Leins on Tish'ah be'Av. The Gemara's conclusion is - "Ki Solid Banim" (Va'eschanan).

(d) And the Haftarah is - "Asof Asifem" (Yirmiyah).

(a) The men of the Ma'amados Lein from Ma'aseh Bereishis - because the world would not continue to exist without the Ma'amados (which represent the Korbanos).

(b) Avraham's concern, when ...

1. ... Hashem told him that his children would inherit Eretz Yisrael - was whether, like the Cana'anim who preceded them, they would not be expelled from the land, should they sin.
2. ... Hashem informed him that the world rests on the merit of the Korbanos was - that that was fine as long as the Beis Hamikdash stood, but what will happen when it is destroyed (and that, in spite of Hashem's answer to his previous fear.
(c) Hashem replied that - even when they were unable to actually bring Korbanos they were able to learn about them, and learning about them is considered as if they had actually brought them.
(a) According to Rebbi Chiya bar Gamda Amar Rebbi Asi, it is forbidden to stop in the middle of the K'lalos, because it looks as if one is rejecting Hashem's Musar. Resh Lakish says - that it is because one does not recite a Berachah over the K'lalos.

(b) The person who is called for the K'lalos avoids reciting a Berachah over them - by starting at least three Pesukim before the commencement of the K'lalos, and stopping at least three Pesukim after them (see Tosfos DH 'Maschil').

(c) One is permitted to stop during the K'lalos of Ki Savo (even though the Minhag is not to do so) - because they were said by Moshe Rabeinu (who spoke his own thoughts (even though he had Ru'ach ha'Kodesh at the time); whereas the K'lalos in Bechukosai were the words that Hashem dictated to Moshe Rabeinu.

(d) Levi bar Buti (the Ba'al Korei) was once Leining the K'lalos in Ki Savo in front of Rav Huna - and he was stammering over them, as he found it difficult to continue without a pause. So Rav Huna told him what we just learned (that one is permitted to stop in the K'lalos of Ki Savo).

(a) Ezra instituted a dual Takanah regarding the K'lalos: He instituted that one should finish the K'lalos in Bechukosai before Shavuos in order to leave the curses behind us in the new year - and that one should finish the K'lalos of Ki Savo before Rosh Hashanah (for the same reason) - See Tosfos DH 'K'lalos'.

(b) Shavuos is called the new year for the fruit of the tree, according to Rebbi Yehudah (as we learned in Rosh Hashanah).

(c) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar (who is also the author of the Beraisa quoted in a.) made a statement for which he gave the Si'man 'Rechav'am ben Shlomoh'. What he said was - that when the elders say 'Destroy' and the children say 'Build', then destroy ... because the demolition of the elders, is in effect, building, and the building of the children, demolition. Rechav'am is a good example of this.

(a) The author of our Mishnah, which says that what one Leins at Shabbos Minchah, on Monday and on Thursday, is not deducted from the Shabbos Leining, is Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Meir says - that at Shabbos Minchah one begins Leining where they left-off that morning, and likewise on Monday morning, they begin where they left-off at Shabbos Minchah, on Thursday, where they left-off on Monday and on Shabbos morning, where they left-off on Thursday morning.

(b) Rebbi Zeira rules that whatever one Leins at Shabbos Minchah, on Monday and on Thursday is repeated the following Shabbos. He did not rule specifically like Rebbi Yehudah - because he switched their opinions (nor did he rule like Rebbi Meir, because he was aware of our version of the Machlokes).

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