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Megilah 30

MEGILAH 29, 30 (25, 26 Tishrei) - Anonymously dedicated by an ardent supporter who wants to have the Zechus of spreading Torah throughout the world.



(a) If Parshas Shekalim falls on Shabbos Parshas Tetzaveh, Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha rules that six people are called up in Parshas Tetzaveh, and Shevi'i, in Ki Sisa (until "ve'Asisa"). Abaye disagree with him - because if so, people will think that Shevi'i is still part of Tetzaveh.

(b) Abaye therefore holds - that Shishi Leins until "ve'Asisa", and Shevi'i repeats the first Parshah of Ki Sisa.

(c) We try to prove Abaye's opinion from the Beraisa quoted above (that when Parshas Shekalim precedes Ki Sisa or follows it, one repeats Parshas Shekalim) - from which we see that when Parshas Shekalim falls on Shabbos Tetzaveh, one repeats Parshas Shekalim on the same day.

(d) Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha counters that this explanation only fits when Parshas Shekalim *precedes* the Parshah, but not when it *follows* it. So we will have to explain - that what the Beraisa means is that whether it falls before or afterwards, one Leins Parshas Shekalim on two consecutive weeks.

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha also rules that if Parshas Shekalim falls on the week of Ki Sisa, that six people Lein from "ve'Asisa" (after Parshas Shekalim) and the seventh, Parshas Shekalim. Abaye disagrees with him there too - on the grounds that people will then think that one is Leining backwards.

(b) Abaye therefore says - that one Leins the entire Parshah of Ki Sisa (including the beginning), and Shevi'i repeats the first Parshah (up to "ve'Asisa").

(c) We are bound to rule like Abaye - because he has a Beraisa to support him.

(a) If Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on a Friday, Rav maintains that we Lein Parshas Shekalim the Shabbos before, in order to ensure at least fourteen days until the bankers set up their stalls throughout the country (on Friday the fourteenth). Shmuel holds that one Leins Parshas Shekalim on the following day (the second of Adar) - on the basis that the bankers will not begin to sit on Friday anyway (because it is Erev Shabbos), but will postpone it until Sunday. Consequently, a full fourteen days still remain.

(b) Shmuel explains the Mishnah, which says ...

1. ...'Chal Liheyos *be'Toch ha'Shabbos* (implying even on Friday), Makdimin le'she'Avar' - by interpreting 'be'Sochah' to mean specifically in the middle of the week (but not on Friday).
2. ... 'Eizohi Shabbos Rishonah? Kol she'Chal Rosh Chodesh Liheyos *be'Sochah*, va'Afilu be'Erev Shabbos' (implying that Rosh Chodesh that falls on Erev Shabbos is like Rosh Chodesh that falls during the rest of the week, and one reads Parshas Shekalim the week before) - to mean not (literally) 'be'Sochah', but 'Bah' (i.e. specifically on Shabbos itself) 'and even on Erev Shabbos' (proving that Erev Shabbos, in this regard, is like Shabos - a proof for Shmuel).
(c) When Rebbi (in another Beraisa) says 'Mesorgin le'Shabbasos' - he means that when Rosh Chodesh falls during the week (even on Friday - like Rav), one brings Parshas Shekalim forward, creating a break the next Shabos, and Parshas Zachor the following week (in order to juxtapose Parshas Zachor to Purim).

(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar agrees with Rebbi in most cases. He disagree with him however - when Rosh Chodesh falls on Friday (like Shmuel).

(a) Rav rules that when Purim (the fourteenth) falls on Friday, Parshas Zachor is brought forward one week - so that the Zechirah should precede the Asiyah.

(b) Shmuel disagrees with him - because there are the Mukafin, who will read the Megilah on the same day as the Zechirah (so that the Asiyah does not precede the Zechirah, which is the main criterion, according to Shmuel).

(c) Shmuel explains our Mishnah, which says ...

1. ... 'bi'Sh'niyah, Zachor' (even though the Reisha of the Mishnah is talking about a case when Rosh Chodesh Adar fell *on Shabbos*, and Purim therefore fell on Friday - to pertain, not to the Reisha (as we just explained), but to the Seifa (Rosh Chodesh which fell *during the week*, in which case, Parshas Shekalim is followed by a break), and 'bi'Sh'niyah, Zachor' means after the break.
2. ... 'Eizeh Shabbos Sh'niyah? Kol she'Chal Purim Liheyos *be'Sochah, va'Afilu be'Erev Shabbos*' (implying that when Purim falls on Friday, like when it falls on any other day of the week, one brings Parshas Zachor forward) - to mean 'Bah', which actually condones his opinion, as we explained earlier (in 3b. 2).
(a) According to Rav Huna, even Rav will agree that, when Purim falls on Shabbos itself, one Leins Parshas Zachor on that day - because (in his opinion) the main thing is that the Asiyah should not precede the Zechirah; but it does not matter if they occur simultaneously.

(b) Rav Nachman however maintains that - Rav argues with Shmuel even in that case, because (in his opinion), the criterion is for the Zechirah to *precede* the Asiyah (and it is not sufficient for them to occur simultaneously).

(c) Rav Nachman's opinion - is condoned by Rebbi Chiya bar Aba who, in the name of Rebbi Aba quotes Rav himself accordingly.

(a) The Beraisa describes Parshas Parah as following Zachor immediately, Rav Chama b'Rebbi Chanina describes it as the Shabbos that precedes Rosh Chodesh Nisan. This is not a contradiction - because Rav Chama b'Rebbi Chanina refers to Rosh Chodesh Nisan that falls on a Shabbos; whereas the Beraisa speaks about when it falls during the week (when it is brought forward as a result).

(b) The real criterion of Parshas Parah - is that it should always precede Parshas ha'Chodesh (so that the Taharah of Yisrael precedes the Korban Pesach).

(c) The Haftarah for ...

  1. ... Parshas Zachor is - "Pakadti" (Shmuel 1), with regard to Shaul's battle with Amalek.
  2. ... Parshas Parah - "ve'Zarakti Aleichem" (Yechezkel).
  3. ... Parshas ha'Chodesh - "Koh Amar Hashem Elokim, ba'Rishon, be'Echad la'Chodesh" (Yechezkel).



(a) When Rebbi Ami, interpreting the Mishnah, says 'le'Seider Parshiyos Hu Chozer' - he means to say that on the four special Shabbasos, they return to the order of the regular Parshiyos (because on the four Shabbasos, they Leined different Parshiyos altogether).

(b) Rebbi Yirmiyah says - that they return to the regular Haftaros, because that is what they changed on the four special Parshiyos).

(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah explains that, our Mishnah, which has just said 'la'Kol Mafsikin: le'Roshei Chodashim, le'Chanukah ... ' - is referring to the Parshiyos (not the Haftaros). But on those days on which the Haftarah is Leined, then *that* is what they break from, and not the regular Leining.

(a) The Kashya why one needs to break the normal Leining on a Ta'anis (why not Lein the regular Leining in the morning, and the Leining for a Ta'anis in the afternoon) is only a Kashya on Rebbi Yirmiyah - because *he* is concerned that one does *not* break with the regular Leining (on the four Parshiyos); according to Rebbi Ami, who holds that we *do*, there is nothing to ask.

(b) We answer - that there was no time in the morning of a Ta'anis to Lein, because they were too busy with communal introspection (like Rav Huna says).

(c) We just learned that in the morning of a Ta'anis, they would involve themselves with communal introspection. Regarding the order of the day in the afternoon - the first half they would spend Leining and reading the Haftarah, and the second half, Davening.

(d) We know that this is the correct order - because Ezra arose at Minchah-time (Minchah Ketanah) and spread out his hands in prayer. However, this appears to clash with Abaye, who says that they would Lein during the first half of the afternoon. Ezra, it would seem, Davened immediately after he had dealt with the communal sins, and not after Leining.

(a) According to our Mishnah, one Leins from Parshas Emor on two of the three Shalosh Regalim. The exception is Shavu'os - when the Leining is "Shiv'ah Shavu'os" from Re'ei.

(b) They would Lein, on ...

  1. ... Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos - from the Korbenos ha'Chag in Pinchas.
  2. ... Chanukah - from the Chanukas ha'Nesi'im in Naso.
  3. ... Purim - "va'Yavo Amalek" (Beshalach).
(c) During Chol ha'Mo'ed, they read the Korbanos ha'Chag (from Pinchas), as we learned in our Mishnah. On each of the first six days, Kohen and Levi Lein the two days of the S'feika de'Yoma; Sh'lishi, the following day, and Revi'i, the two days of the Safek (though this is not the Minhag in Eretz Yisrael). The Leining of the seventh day differs from that of the sixth - inasmuch as Revi'i Leins "u'va'Yom ha'Shishi" and "u'va'Yom ha'Shevi'i" instead of "u'va'Yom ha'Chamishi" and "u'va'Yom ha'Shishi", which is what Revi'i read on the previous day.

(d) It is not possible to insert "u'va'Yom ha'Shemini" in the Leining of the seventh day - since Shemini Atzeres does not belong to Sukos, but is an independent Yom-Tov in this regard.

(a) The Ma'amados would Lein from Ma'aseh Bereishis, as we learned in Ta'anis. The Leining on a Ta'anis Tzibur - was the B'rachos and K'lalos in Bechukosai (to remind them that the source of punishment is sin, thereby encouraging them to do Teshuvah).

(b) The Leining of the K'lalos in Bechukosai is unique - inasmuch as one is forbidden to stop in the middle (as will be explained later in the Sugya).

(a) When the Tana says (with regard to the Leining at Shabbos Minchah, on Monday and Thursday) 've'Ein Olin Lahem min ha'Minyan' - he means that they must repeat what they Leined previously, as opposed to just carrying on from where they left off on Thursday.

(b) We learn the obligation to Lein the Parshah of each Yom-Tov on that Yom-Tov - from the Pasuk in Emor "va'Yedaber Moshe es Mo'adei Hashem el B'nei Yisrael".

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