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Megilah 29

MEGILAH 29, 30 (25, 26 Tishrei) - Anonymously dedicated by an ardent supporter who wants to have the Zechus of spreading Torah throughout the world.



(a) One may and (must) stop learning Torah in order to accompany a dead person and for the Mitzvah of Hachnasas Kalah. The latter constitutes - accompanying her from her father's house to the Chupah.

(b) One is not obligated (or even permitted) to stop learning in order to accompany a dead person - if he has the necessary quota of people needed, depending on the Kavod due to him (as will be explained shortly).

(c) Rav Shmuel bar Inaya Amar Rav defines 'Kol Tzorcho' in one of two ways: *one* of them is twelve thousand men plus six thousand Shofar blowers, the other, twelve thousand people, of whom six thousand are Shofar-blowers.

(d) Ula defines it as sufficient people to fill the space from the gates of the town until the grave-side - Rav Sheishes, as six hundred thousand people (just as the Torah was given, so is it taken away).

(a) The above applies to someone who only *learned* Torah (see Tosfos DH 'Hani Mili'). For someone who *taught* it - there is no minimum Shiur. Everyone is obligated to stop learning and attend the Levayah.

(b) Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "ha'Nigloh Nigleisi le'Veis Avicha bi'Heyosam be'Mitzrayim" - that even when Yisrael were in Egypt, the Shechinah was with them.
2. ... "Lema'ancha Shulachti Bavelah" - that the Shechinah went down with them to Bavel, too.
3. ... "ve'Shav Hashem Elokecha es Sh'vuscha" - that when we ultimately leave Galus, the Shechinah will leave with us (since the Pasuk does not write "ve'Heishiv ... es Shevuscha" - which would mean that Hashem will *return us* from captivity, but "ve'Shav", implying that He will return *with us*.
(c) What the Shul in Hutzal (in Bavel) and the Shul of Shaf ve'Yasiv in Neherda'a have in common - is that it was in both, that the Shechinah would appear in Bavel, sometimes in one, sometimes in the other.

(d) King Yechonyah and his retinue built the Shul of Shaf ve'Yasiv, when they arrived from Eretz Yisrael, with stones that they brought with them from Eretz Yisrael.

(a) Abaye would walk as much as one Parsah (four Mil) in order to Daven in the Shul of Shaf ve'Yasiv.

(b) Shmuel's father and Levi would leave the Shul when they heard the Shechinah about to enter. Rav Sheshes declined to do so - because he was blind. The Shechinah instructed the Angels to leave him be, after Rav Sheishes argued that surely, 'someone' who has all his faculties must give way to the unfortunate person who does not.

(c) According to Rebbi Yitzchak, the Pasuk in Yechezkel "va'Ehi Lahem le'Mikdash Me'at" refers to the Shuls and Batei Medrash of Bavel. According to Rebbi Elazar - it referred to the house of Rav in Bavel.

(d) Rava applied the Pasuk "Hashem Ma'on Atah Hayisa Lanu" to the Shuls and the Batei Medrash in Bavel. The Pasuk "Hashem Ahavti Me'on Beiseicha" affected Abaye to the effect - that when he realized its implication, he took to learning in the Shul where he Davened, instead of in his own house (see Gilyon ha'Shas).

(a) Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar learned from Mount Tavor and Mount Karmel - that if those two mountains were fixed in Eretz Yisrael, because they came to Har Sinai (to learn Torah) when the Torah was being given on it, then the Shuls and the Batei K'neisiyos, in which Torah is being disseminated all the time, will certainly be moved to Eretz Yisrael.

(b) Bar Kapara learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lamah Teratzdun *Harim Gavnunim*" - that someone who is proud (like the mountains who claimed that the Torah should be given on them because they were taller than Har Sinai) is considered blemished (after the blemish in the eye that is called 'Gibein').

(c) We learned in our Mishnah that one may not use a Shul as a short cut. 'Kapendarya' is the acronym of - 'a'de'Makifna Adri, Ei'al be'Ha' ('Instead of going round this row of houses, let me go through here').

(d) Someone who entered the Shul intending to retrace his steps, may subsequently leave by the other entrance (in the form of a short cut) should he change his mind. If however, he entered in order to Daven - then (even if he intended originally to exit through the other door), not only is he permitted to do so, but it is even a Mitzvah.

(a) We learned in our Mishnah that one is forbidden to cut grass that is growing in the ruins of a Shul. In order to conform with a Beraisa - we amend that statement to read that one is forbidden to cut the grass to feed one's animals, but one is permitted to cut it and leave it there.

(b) One may not - graze one's animals, divert a steam through it or cup the grass that is growing in a Beis-ha'Kevaros.

(c) If someone *did* cut the grass there - it must be burned.

(d) The underlying reason for these prohibitions - is Kavod for the dead.

(a) When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls ...
  1. ... on Shabbos - one Leins Parshas Shekalim ... then.
  2. ... during the week - it is brought forward to the Shabbos before.
(b) On the second Shabbos we Lein Parshas Zachor, on the third Shabbos, Parshas Parah and on the fourth, Parshas ha'Chodesh. The correct chronological order of the third and the fourth Parshiyos - is in the reverse order, seeing as Parshas ha'Chodesh refers to Rosh Chodesh Nisan, and the first Parah Adumah was only burned on the second of Nisan (in the following year).

(c) Parshas Parah nevertheless comes first - because it deals with the Taharah of K'lal Yisrael (and someone who is Tamei is not permitted to bring the Korban Pesach).

(d) During the week, one breaks with the regular Leining on every occasion: on Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah, Purim, Ta'aniyos, Ma'amados and Yom Kipur. Yom Kipur - refers to Shabbos Minchah, when Yom Kipur falls on Shabbos.




(a) We learned in a Mishnah in Shekalim that on the first of Adar, Beis-Din would issue an announcement regarding the Shekalim and regarding Kil'ayim. In the latter case - they would announce then (during the season of sowing) that whoever had Kil'ayim growing in his field, should remove the offending plants at once.

(b) They announced the Shekalim specifically then, because of what Rav Tavi said in the name Rebbi Yashiyah. Rav Tavi said (based on the Pasuk in Pinchas "Zos Olas Chodesh be'Chodsho") - that Nisan was the time to begin purchasing Korbenos Tzibur with the new batch of money.

(c) This seems to suggest that the author of our Mishnah is the Rabbanan, who hold that one asks She'eilos and Darshens thirty days (from Rosh Chodesh Adar until Rosh Chodesh Nisan) before each Yom-Tov. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says - fourteen days.

(d) It is nevertheless possible for the author of our Mishnah to be Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - because here too, it is fourteen days before the bankers set up centers throughout Eretz Yisrael (on the fifteenth of Adar) to exchange coins for the Machtzis ha'Shekel.

(a) The bankers began setting up their centers in various spots throughout the land on the fifteenth of Adar. They set them up in the Beis Hamikdash however - on the twenty-fifth.

(b) The latter was a sign that the final time to bring one's half-Shekel was fast approaching, and that, from now on, Beis-Din would begin taking collateral from those people who were lax in paying their dues.

(a) Rav maintains that Parshas Shekalim comprises the Parshah in Pinchas "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael"; according to Shmuel - it is the opening paragraph of Ki Sisa.

(b) The Parshah of Ki Sisa deals specifically with the half-Shekalim. "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael" is connected with the Shekalim - because of what Rav Tavi quoting Rebbi Yashiyah (who learns from this Pasuk that Nisan was the time to begin bringing Korbanos Tzibur that were purchased from the new batch of money - as we explained in 7b.).

(c) The Parshah in Ki Sisa may well deal with the half-Shekalim that they donated in the desert, but that particular money was melted down and used for the silver sockets that served as the base of the Mishkan (and not for the purchase of the Korbanos - which the annual donation currently under discussion was used for). Nevertheless - the Pasuk uses the word "Terumah" three times there, hinting at two other donations (besides that of the sockets): the donations of the raw materials for the Mishkan's construction, and the half-Shekalim that were used for the purchase of the Korbanos.

(d) According to Rav, we explain, this Rosh Chodesh Adar differs from every other Rosh Chodesh, on which one also Leins the Parshah of "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael", inasmuch as now that constitutes the entire Leining, whereas on other Roshei Chodashim, it constitutes only Shevi'i. According to those who maintain that the four Parshiyos comprise only the Maftir, the difference between the two will be - that whereas on a regular Rosh Chodesh, they would call up *six* in the Parshah of the week and only *Shevi'i* (Maftir) would Lein "Tzav ... "; on Rosh Chodesh Adar, *three* would Lein the Parshah of the week, and *four* would Lein "Tzav ... ".

(a) The Haftarah of Parshas Shekalim is that of Yehoyada ha'Kohen. The connection between that and the Parshah of "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael" (according to Rav) - is the statement of Rav Tavi (quoted above - that Nisan was the time to begin purchasing the Korbenos Tzibur from the new batch of money).

(b) We learn in a Beraisa that if Parshas Shekalim falls the week before or the week after the Parshah in which it is written, then it is Leined twice consecutively. It is possible, according to Rav, for Parshas Pinchas (which contains "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael") to fall due in Adar - according to the Minhag of Eretz Yisrael (of that time) who concluded the reading of the Torah only once every three years.

(c) The Beraisa, which explicitly cites Ki Sisa as being Parshas Shekalim - supports Shmuel.

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha cites two occasions on which one takes out three Sifrei-Torah - Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Adar, and Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Teives.

(b) It would not have sufficed to state this just in the case of Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Teives - because we might then have thought that with regard to Parshas Shekalim, Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha holds like Rav, that Parshas Shekalim comprises "Tzav es B'nei Yisrael" (which, like the Leining of Rosh Chodesh, is in Pinchas). Consequently, it would not be necessary to takes out three Sefarim on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Adar?

(c) In fact, Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha said his Din only with regard to Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Adar - and it is the Gemara that extrapolates that the same applies to Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh Teives.

(a) According to Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha, when Rosh Chodesh Teives falls during the week, one calls up three people for Rosh Chodesh and one for Chanukah - because Rosh Chodesh is more common than Chanukah, so we apply the principle 'Tadir ve'she'Eino Tadir, Tadir Kodem'.

(b) Rav Dimi from Haifa argues with him (and holds the reverse) - because were it not for Rosh Chodesh, there would only be three Aliyos. Consequently, it stands to reason that Revi'i should be reserved for Rosh Chodesh.

(c) Rabah and Rav Yosef support Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha and Rav Dimi from Haifa (respectively). The Gemara's final ruling - is like Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha and Rabah (that Rosh Chodesh takes precedence) - see Tosfos DH 've'Hilchesa'.

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