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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 28



(a) Rebbi P'reida too, put his longevity down to three causes: 1. to the fact that nobody ever arrived in the Beis-Hamedrash before him; 2. ... that he never ate from an animal before the Matanos were separated; 3. ... that he never recited the Berachah when there was a Kohen present. The Matanos he was referring to - are the right fore-leg, the cheeks and the Keivah (stomach).

(b) The Halachah is not like Rav Yitzchak, who says that if someone eats from an animal before the Matanos have been separated, it is as if he has eaten Tevalim - one is, in fact, permitted to eat part of the animal first and separate the Matanos afterwards.

(c) Rebbi P'reida never recited the Berachah of Mezuman when there was a Kohen present.

(d) Rebbi P'reida never Bensched in the presence of a Kohen who was at least a *Talmid-Chacham*, even if he was not on the same level as Rebbi P'reida himself - whereas Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that it is a Chilul Hashem to allow an unlearned Kohen (even if he is a Kohen Gadol) to Bensch before a Talmid-Chacham, is referring to a Kohen *Am-ha'Aretz*.

(a) Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah ascribed his longevity to 1. not deriving honor from his friend's shame; 2. not going to bed with his friend's curse on his lips; 3. giving away his money easily. The Gemara illustrates not deriving honor from his friend's shame from an incident with Rav Huna - who was once carrying a load on his shoulders, and who refused to allow Rav Chana bar Chanila'i to relieve him of the load unless he would first assure him that he tended to carry such loads in his own town.

(b) Before going to bed each night - Mar Zutra used to say 'May Hashem forgive whoever caused me pain'.

(c) Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah learned from Iyov - to be easy-going with his money (for the benefit of others), because Iyov used to leave the extra Perutah with the store-keeper.

(a) When Rebbi Akiva asked Rebbi Nechunya ha'Gadol what he done to live so long - Rebbi Nechunya's servants, thinking that Rebbi Akiva was wishing their Rebbi dead, lay about him with sticks.

(b) Rebbi Akiva climbed a tree for safety. Rebbi Nechunyah instructed his servants to leave Rebbi Akiva alone - when, from the tree-top, he asked him why the Torah writes "es ha'Keves *Echad* Ta'aseh ba'Boker" (Why is the word "Echad" not superfluous?), from which he realized that Rebbi Akiva was a Talmid-Chacham.

(c) The Torah writes "es ha'Keves *Echad* Ta'aseh ba'Boker" - to teach us that the lamb should be 'Meyuchad she'be'Edro' (a special one).

(d) Rebbi Nechunyah ha'Gadol (like Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakaneh) was easy going with his money. He never accepted gifts, and he did not stand on his honor (he was ready to forgive the sins of others towards him). He declined to accept gifts - on the basis of the Pasuk in Mishlei "Sonei Matanos Yichyeh".

(a) Rebbi Elazar too, would not accept gifts from the Nasi's family, nor would he accept invitations. Rebbi Zeira would not accept gifts, yet he would accept invitations - because he felt that his hosts were receiving more from his company than he was from theirs.

(b) We interpret the Pasuk in Michah "Nosei Avon ve'Over al Pesha" - to mean that Hashem forgives the sins of those who forego what others have done to them.

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah was surprised when Rebbi asked him why he had lived so long. Rebbi's motive in asking the question - was in order to learn from what is good in Hashem's eyes, and to then emulate his example.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah replied that he never looked at the face of a Rasha. He learned that from - Elisha, who told Yehoram the son of Ach'av that he would not look at him, were it not out of respect for Yehoshafat (King of Yehudah - his brother-in-law and current ally).

(a) Rebbi Eliezer said that someone who looks at the face of a Rasha will go blind - like Yitzchak, who went blind because he looked in the face of his son Eisav.

(b) We reconcile Rebbi Eliezer's words with the statement of Rav Yitzchak (which we learned already above) that Yitzchak became blind on account of Avimelech's curse on Sarah "Hinei Hu Lach K'sus Einayim" - by explaining that the one served as the catalyst that caused the other to become fulfilled.

(c) Rava learns from the Pasuk "Se'eis P'nei Rasha Lo Tov" what we just said - that looking at the face of a Resha causes harm.

(d) When Rebbi asked Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah for a Berachah, he responded by wishing him that he should reach *half* his years - not *all* his years, because Rebbi was a Prince, and it is only right that he should leave some years for his sons to take over his greatness.

(a) Avuha bar Ihi and Meniman bar Ihi were brothers. One of them declared that he deserved praise for never looking at a Nochri - the other one for never entering into a partnership with one.

(b) When they asked Rebbi Zeira to what he ascribed his longevity, he gave them a long list of seven attributes: He never got angry with his family; he never walked in front of someone who was greater than him; he never thought words of Torah in dirty alleyways or walked four Amos without Torah and Tefilin. The remaining three are - that he never slept in the Beis-ha'Medrash (even just a cat-nap), never rejoiced at his friend's downfall and never called friends by their nicknames (even names that were not derogatory).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah lists a number of things that are prohibited in the ruins of a Shul: eulogizing, twisting ropes and setting traps. One may also not place fruit on its roof to dry.

(b) He learns from the Pasuk "va'Hashimosi es Mikdesheichem" - that a a holy place (such as a Shul) retains its Kedushah even after it has been destroyed.

(c) He forbids cutting the grass there - in order to create an aura of sadness, which will compel people to set about rebuilding it.

(d) The Tana of the Beraisa presents a list of things that are forbidden in a Shul due to lightheadedness. Besides eating, drinking and adorning oneself - he also forbids strolling in a Shul, entering it because of the heat or the rain and making a Hesped (eulogy).




(a) A private Hesped (which will be defined shortly) is permitted in a Shul.

(b) One may learn Chumash and Mishnah there.

(c) One sweeps a Shul and settles the dust to prevent grass from growing there. Rebbi Yehudah comments - that that applies only to a Shul that is complete, but that in the case of a ruin, on the contrary, one deliberately allows the grass to grow (as we learned in our Mishnah).

(a) Rav Asi says that the Shuls in Bavel are made on the express condition that, after they have been destroyed, one may do with them whatever one wishes (see end of Tosfos DH 'Batei K'neisiyos').

(b) Making one's calculations nevertheless remains forbidden (see Tosfos DH 've'Af-al-pi-Kein' and Maharsha) - because it is particularly lightheaded.

(c) When Rav Asi warned that if people make their calculations in Shul, they will leave a dead person in it overnight - he meant that people in that town will die who do not have anyone to bury them.

(d) We cannot understand his words literally - because it implies that it is an order to do so. But how can that be, when leaving a corpse unburied overnight is prohibited?

(a) Chachamim and their disciples are permitted to eat in a Shul or in a Beis Hamedrash.

(b) In spite of the prohibition of entering a Shul because of the rain, Rava (in the process of answering a She'eilah of theirs) once took Ravina and Rav Ada bar Masna into Shul when it started raining - because, they did not enter the Shul to escape the rain, but because it is difficult to concentrate in the rain, and Torah-study requires a lucid mind.

(c) Someone who needs to call his friend out of Shul, assuming he is ...

  1. ... a Talmid-Chacham - should first say ... a Halachah.
  2. ... an expert in Mishnayos - ... a Mishnah.
  3. ... proficient in Chumash . ... a Pasuk.
  4. ... none of these - should either first ask a child to say over a Pasuk he has learned, or linger in Shul a short while before calling him.
(a) When Rav Sheishes pointed at Rav Chisda, and Rav Chisda pointed at Rav Sheishes - they were simply giving examples of what is considered a public Hesped (which is attended by a great man who draws crowds).

(b) Rafram eulogized his daughter-in-law in Shul - either because she had been a great woman in her life-time (and a lot of people would come to her Hesped), or because people would come to the Hesped because *he* was giving it, or even simply because he was there.

(c) Resh Lakish eulogized a certain Talmid-Chacham who taught Mishnayos to twenty-four rows of Talmidim; Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, on the other hand, when asked to eulogize a Talmid-Chacham who had taught Mishnah, Sifra, Sifri and Tosefta - declined, on the grounds that he was no more than a parrot.

(d) 'Come and see the difference between the tough men of Eretz Yisrael and the pious men of Bavel!'

1. Resh Lakish was a tough man - inasmuch as so particular was he with whom he chose to speak in the market-place, that anyone seen doing so was considered sufficiently trustworthy for people to enter into major business transactions without witnesses.
2. We know that Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak was pious - because he protested at the suggestion that the fear of G-d no longer existed, on the grounds that he was a G-d-fearing man.
(a) Resh Lakish explains the Mishnah in Pirkei Avos 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Saga Chalaf' to mean - that using a person who has learned Mishnah is prohibited.

(b) Ula disagrees, He says - that one is permitted to use someone who has learned four Sedarim (Mo'ed, Nashim, Nezikim and Kodshim), though one is not permitted to use someone who has taught them.

(c) Resh Lakish condescended to allow the man who had learned four Sedarim of Mishnayos to carry him across the river - only on condition that he learn something from him (from Resh Lakish).

(d) He then taught him that - even though min ha'Torah, a woman needs to wait seven clean days only when she has seen blood on three consecutive days, the women themselves undertook to wait seven clean days even after seeing no more than one drop the size of a mustard-seed.

(a) Tana de'Bei Eliyahu interprets the Pasuk in Chavakuk "Halichos Olam Lo" - as if it had written "Halachos Olam Lo".

(b) He derives from there - that anyone who learns Halachos (Mishnah) every day is assured of a place in the World to Come.

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