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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 23

MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.



(a) The author of our Mishnah cannot be Rebbi Yishmael, who does not permit adding to the five, six and seven Aliyos of Yom-Tov, Yom Kipur and Shabbos respectively. Neither can it be Rebbi Akiva, even though he agrees with the Tana of our Mishnah that one may - he *disagrees* however, with the Tana of our Mishnah, regarding the number off Aliyos. According to him, one calls up *seven* people on Yom Kipur and *six* on Shabbos.

(b) The author of our Mishnah is in fact, Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael - two Tana'im in fact, argue over what Rebbi Yishmael really holds.

(a) The Beraisa states that on Yom-Tov, Davenning begins later than usual - because one needs to prepare the meal (before going to Shul), and finishes earlier - because of Simchas Yom-Tov.

(b) He also says that on both Yom-Kipur and Shabbos Shul begins early - because the meal has already been prepared the day before, and it is a Mitzvah to go to Shul early to Daven ka'Vasikin (to begin the Amidah as the sun begins to rise).

(c) One concludes late on Yom-Kipur, whereas on Shabbos, one concludes early. That is not necessarily because the author of the Beraisa is Rebbi Akiva, in whose opinion one calls up *six* people on Shabbos, and *seven* on Yom Kipur - but because of the long Davenning on Yom Kipur (in which case, the author could even be Rebbi Yishmael).

(a) According to some, the three, five and seven Aliyos of weekday, Yom-Tov and Shabbos respectively represent the three, five and seven words of the three Pesukim of Birchas Kohanim (see Tosfos above 21b. DH 'Keneged'). Others say - that they represent the three guards of the inner-gate, the five important ministers of the King of Persia, and the five plus two (less important) ministers, totaling seven (see also Tosfos DH 'Shiv'ah').

(b) Rav Yosef cites a Beraisa that holds the latter view. He never taught that Beraisa to Abaye - because Abaye never asked him for the information (bear in mind that this is not a Halachah, which Rav Yosef would have taught Abaye without being asked).

(c) The six Aliyos on Yom Kipur - represent the six men who stood on Ezra's right and the six who stood on his left (when he ascended the wooden platform to speak to the people).

(d) Even though the list of those who stood on Ezra's left contains *seven* names (Pedayah, Mishael, Malkiyah, Chashum, Chashbadanah, Zecharyah and Meshulam), Rav Yehudah nevertheless counts them as six - because Zecharyah and Meshulam are one and the same (his real name was Zecharyah, and he was called Meshulam because his deeds were perfect).

4) Strictly speaking, the seven Aliyos on Shabbos may include ...
1. ... a Katan - however the Minhag nowadays, is not to call up a Katan (except on the odd occasion, for Maftir).
2. ... a woman - but the Beraisa already writes that it is not Kavod Tzibur for a woman to read the Megilah.
(a) Rav Huna and Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba argue over whether the Maftir is counted among the seven Aliyos or not. The one who says that he cannot, quotes as his reason Ula - who says that the person who is called up to read the Haftarah reads in the Torah first, only because of Kavod ha'Torah (and not as an intrinsic obligation).

(b) The minimum number of Pesukim that one Leins from the Navi (for the Haftarah) - is twenty-one.

(c) There is no proof from there that the Maftir is counted among the seven (because otherwise, he should read a minimum of twenty-*four* Pesukim) - because since the only reason that one reads the Maftir is because of Kavod ha'Torah, like Ula said, it is not necessary to read corresponding Pesukim in the Navi.




(a) We uphold the Minhag to Lein the Haftarah of "Oloseichem Tamu" in Yirmiyah (which does not contain twenty-one Pesukim) in spite of the above Beraisa, which requires a minimum of twenty-one Pesukim - by bearing in mind that the entire chapter contains less than twenty-one Pesukim, in which case it is permitted to Lein less. Note: The same applies to the minimum of ten Pesukim in the Torah (see Tosfos 21b. DH 'Ein Pochsin').

(b) We reconcile Rav Shmuel bar Aba, who quoted Rebbi Yochanan, who would often stop the Haftarah after *ten* Pesukim - by establishing it in a place where there is a translator, in which case it is permitted to Lein less than twenty-one Pesukim (because of the burden on the community).

(a) Porsin al Shema, Tefilah be'Tzibur, Nesi'as Kapayim (Duchening), K'ri'as ha'Torah and Leining the Haftarah - are all included in 'Davar she'bi'Kedushah' and therefore require ten people.

(b) 'Porsin al Shema' is performed by ten people who arrive late in Shul (after the community have already said the Shema) - one of them recites Kadish, Barchu and the first Berachah of Shema.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Nikdashti *be'Soch* B'nei Yisrael" - that a Davar she'bi'Kedushah requires at least ten people.

(d) We learn this from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ("ve'Nikdashti *be'Soch* B'nei Yisrael" and "Hibadlu *mi'Toch* ha'Eidah" - referring to the congregation of Korach). We require the second 'Gezeirah-Shavah' - "Hibadlu mi'Toch *ha'Eidah*" and "ad Masai la'Eidah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos"- to teach us that an Eidah (which refers there to the ten evil spies) must consist of not less than ten people.

(a) 'Ma'amad u'Moshav' is - the seven times that they would stop on the way to the burial site, put the coffin down and make a Hesped for the deceased.

(b) It too, requires at least ten people - because with less than that, it appears to be unworthy of so much fuss ('much ado about nothing').

(c) Birchas Aveilim, Tanchumei Aveilim and Birchas Chasanim also require ten.

1. Birchas Aveilim - is the double Berachah that they would recite on the road returning from the burial, one for the comforters ('Acheinu, Ba'al ha'G'mul Yeshalem Lachem G'mulchem ha'Tov', Baruch ... Meshalem ha'G'mul'), and one for the mourners ('Acheinu, Ba'al Nechamos Yenachem Eschem, Baruch ... Menachem Aveilim').
2. Tanchumei Aveilim - is the Shurah (the two rows that one makes for the mourners to pass in between).
(d) The Aveilim are *not* counted in the Minyan for Birchas Aveilim - because one of the Berachos is directed specifically at them; whereas the Chasanim *are* counted for Birchas Chasanim, because there is no reason why they shouldn't.
9) Birchas ha'Mazon be'Sheim also require a Minyan - because it is not befitting to mention Hashem's Name when there are less than ten people.


(a) Ten expert assessors are required to assess land, of whom at least one must be a Kohen - because the Torah writes "Kohen" ten times in the Parshah (three by Erchin, three by animals of Hekdesh and three by land which is Hekdesh); one of these is needed for itself, each of the other nine is considered an exclusion after an exclusion (which comes to include - a Yisrael), leaving us with a total of nine Yisraelim and one Kohen.

(b) Despite the fact that the ten times "Kohen" incorporates Erchin, animals and land, it is nevertheless specifically land that requires ten assessors - because the final (four) times appears by land.

(c) The problem with this entire Derashah is - that, seeing as the Torah writes ten times "Kohen", we ought to say that the first "Kohen" comes to *exclude* a Yisrael, and the second "Kohen" to *include* one, the third "Kohen" to *exclude* a Yisrael, the fourth "Kohen" to include one. Consequently, the Din ought to be that the assessment of land requires not *one* out of ten Kohanim, but *five*.

(a) A man, like land, requires ten assessors. A man of course, is not Hekdesh. What we are speaking about here is - someone who says 'Dami Alai' (by which he becomes obligated to pay his 'value' to Hekdesh).

(b) A man requires ten assessors - because he is compared to land (in the Pasuk "ve'Hisnachaltem Osam li'V'neichem Achareichem *la'Resh es Achuzah*, L e'olam Bahem Ta'avodu" (which pertains to non-Jewish slaves) - see Tosfos DH 'Shamin' and Maharsha.

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