ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Megilah 23
MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann
of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.
(a) The author of our Mishnah cannot be Rebbi Yishmael, who does not permit
adding to the five, six and seven Aliyos of Yom-Tov, Yom Kipur and Shabbos
respectively. Neither can it be Rebbi Akiva, even though he agrees with the
Tana of our Mishnah that one may - he *disagrees* however, with the Tana of
our Mishnah, regarding the number off Aliyos. According to him, one calls up
*seven* people on Yom Kipur and *six* on Shabbos.
(b) The author of our Mishnah is in fact, Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael - two
Tana'im in fact, argue over what Rebbi Yishmael really holds.
(a) The Beraisa states that on Yom-Tov, Davenning begins later than usual -
because one needs to prepare the meal (before going to Shul), and finishes
earlier - because of Simchas Yom-Tov.
(b) He also says that on both Yom-Kipur and Shabbos Shul begins early -
because the meal has already been prepared the day before, and it is a
Mitzvah to go to Shul early to Daven ka'Vasikin (to begin the Amidah as the
sun begins to rise).
(c) One concludes late on Yom-Kipur, whereas on Shabbos, one concludes early.
That is not necessarily because the author of the Beraisa is Rebbi Akiva, in
whose opinion one calls up *six* people on Shabbos, and *seven* on Yom Kipur
- but because of the long Davenning on Yom Kipur (in which case, the author
could even be Rebbi Yishmael).
(a) According to some, the three, five and seven Aliyos of weekday, Yom-Tov
and Shabbos respectively represent the three, five and seven words of the
three Pesukim of Birchas Kohanim (see Tosfos above 21b. DH 'Keneged'). Others
say - that they represent the three guards of the inner-gate, the five
important ministers of the King of Persia, and the five plus two (less
important) ministers, totaling seven (see also Tosfos DH 'Shiv'ah').
Strictly speaking, the seven Aliyos on Shabbos may include ...
(b) Rav Yosef cites a Beraisa that holds the latter view. He never taught
that Beraisa to Abaye - because Abaye never asked him for the information
(bear in mind that this is not a Halachah, which Rav Yosef would have taught
Abaye without being asked).
(c) The six Aliyos on Yom Kipur - represent the six men who stood on Ezra's
right and the six who stood on his left (when he ascended the wooden platform
to speak to the people).
(d) Even though the list of those who stood on Ezra's left contains *seven*
names (Pedayah, Mishael, Malkiyah, Chashum, Chashbadanah, Zecharyah and
Meshulam), Rav Yehudah nevertheless counts them as six - because Zecharyah
and Meshulam are one and the same (his real name was Zecharyah, and he was
called Meshulam because his deeds were perfect).
1. ... a Katan - however the Minhag nowadays, is not to call up a Katan
(except on the odd occasion, for Maftir).
2. ... a woman - but the Beraisa already writes that it is not Kavod Tzibur
for a woman to read the Megilah.
(a) Rav Huna and Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba argue over whether the Maftir is
counted among the seven Aliyos or not. The one who says that he cannot,
quotes as his reason Ula - who says that the person who is called up to read
the Haftarah reads in the Torah first, only because of Kavod ha'Torah (and
not as an intrinsic obligation).
(b) The minimum number of Pesukim that one Leins from the Navi (for the
Haftarah) - is twenty-one.
(c) There is no proof from there that the Maftir is counted among the seven
(because otherwise, he should read a minimum of twenty-*four* Pesukim) -
because since the only reason that one reads the Maftir is because of Kavod
ha'Torah, like Ula said, it is not necessary to read corresponding Pesukim in
(a) We uphold the Minhag to Lein the Haftarah of "Oloseichem Tamu" in
Yirmiyah (which does not contain twenty-one Pesukim) in spite of the above
Beraisa, which requires a minimum of twenty-one Pesukim - by bearing in mind
that the entire chapter contains less than twenty-one Pesukim, in which case
it is permitted to Lein less. Note: The same applies to the minimum of ten
Pesukim in the Torah (see Tosfos 21b. DH 'Ein Pochsin').
(b) We reconcile Rav Shmuel bar Aba, who quoted Rebbi Yochanan, who would
often stop the Haftarah after *ten* Pesukim - by establishing it in a place
where there is a translator, in which case it is permitted to Lein less than
twenty-one Pesukim (because of the burden on the community).
(a) Porsin al Shema, Tefilah be'Tzibur, Nesi'as Kapayim (Duchening), K'ri'as
ha'Torah and Leining the Haftarah - are all included in 'Davar
she'bi'Kedushah' and therefore require ten people.
(b) 'Porsin al Shema' is performed by ten people who arrive late in Shul
(after the community have already said the Shema) - one of them recites
Kadish, Barchu and the first Berachah of Shema.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Nikdashti *be'Soch* B'nei Yisrael" - that a
Davar she'bi'Kedushah requires at least ten people.
(d) We learn this from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ("ve'Nikdashti *be'Soch* B'nei
Yisrael" and "Hibadlu *mi'Toch* ha'Eidah" - referring to the congregation of
Korach). We require the second 'Gezeirah-Shavah' - "Hibadlu mi'Toch
*ha'Eidah*" and "ad Masai la'Eidah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos"- to teach us that an
Eidah (which refers there to the ten evil spies) must consist of not less
than ten people.
(a) 'Ma'amad u'Moshav' is - the seven times that they would stop on the way
to the burial site, put the coffin down and make a Hesped for the deceased.
Birchas ha'Mazon be'Sheim also require a Minyan - because it is not befitting
to mention Hashem's Name when there are less than ten people.
(b) It too, requires at least ten people - because with less than that, it
appears to be unworthy of so much fuss ('much ado about nothing').
(c) Birchas Aveilim, Tanchumei Aveilim and Birchas Chasanim also require ten.
1. Birchas Aveilim - is the double Berachah that they would recite on the
road returning from the burial, one for the comforters ('Acheinu, Ba'al
ha'G'mul Yeshalem Lachem G'mulchem ha'Tov', Baruch ... Meshalem ha'G'mul'),
and one for the mourners ('Acheinu, Ba'al Nechamos Yenachem Eschem, Baruch
... Menachem Aveilim').
(d) The Aveilim are *not* counted in the Minyan for Birchas Aveilim - because
one of the Berachos is directed specifically at them; whereas the Chasanim
*are* counted for Birchas Chasanim, because there is no reason why they
2. Tanchumei Aveilim - is the Shurah (the two rows that one makes for the
mourners to pass in between).
(a) Ten expert assessors are required to assess land, of whom at least one
must be a Kohen - because the Torah writes "Kohen" ten times in the Parshah
(three by Erchin, three by animals of Hekdesh and three by land which is
Hekdesh); one of these is needed for itself, each of the other nine is
considered an exclusion after an exclusion (which comes to include - a
Yisrael), leaving us with a total of nine Yisraelim and one Kohen.
(b) Despite the fact that the ten times "Kohen" incorporates Erchin, animals
and land, it is nevertheless specifically land that requires ten assessors -
because the final (four) times appears by land.
(c) The problem with this entire Derashah is - that, seeing as the Torah
writes ten times "Kohen", we ought to say that the first "Kohen" comes to
*exclude* a Yisrael, and the second "Kohen" to *include* one, the third
"Kohen" to *exclude* a Yisrael, the fourth "Kohen" to include one.
Consequently, the Din ought to be that the assessment of land requires not
*one* out of ten Kohanim, but *five*.
(a) A man, like land, requires ten assessors. A man of course, is not
Hekdesh. What we are speaking about here is - someone who says 'Dami Alai'
(by which he becomes obligated to pay his 'value' to Hekdesh).
(b) A man requires ten assessors - because he is compared to land (in the Pasuk "ve'Hisnachaltem Osam li'V'neichem Achareichem *la'Resh es Achuzah*, L e'olam Bahem Ta'avodu" (which pertains
to non-Jewish slaves) - see Tosfos DH 'Shamin' and Maharsha.