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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 21

MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.



(a) We learn that the neck of the Eglah Arufah must be broken by day - from the fact that the Torah writes "Kaparah" with regard to it (like by Kodshim).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Zos Tihyeh Toras ha'Metzora be'Yom Taharaso" - that the purification ceremony of the Metzora must take by day.

(c) We learned in our Mishnah that the cutting of the Omer had to be performed by night. The Mitzvah of Sefiras ha'Omer followed the same pattern - see also Tosfos 20b. DH 'Kol ha'Laylah').

(d) We learn from the Pasuk (with regard to the Korban Tamid) "Kol ha'Laylah ad ha'Boker" - that the burning of the limbs and the fat-pieces of the Tamid and other Korbanos could be burned all night.

(a) Our Mishnah says 'Zeh ha'K'lal, Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Yom, Kasher Kol ha'Yom'. This comes to include the 'Sidur Bazichin' and the 'Siluk Bazichin', like Rebbi Yossi. The 'Sidur Bazichin' - comprises the arrangement of the two new bowls of frankincense which accompanied the two rows freshly-baked loaves of breads on the Table (though it also incorporates here, the arrangement of the of loaves themselves); and the 'Siluk Bazichin' - comprises the removal of the old bowls (and of last-weeks loaves).

(b) Rebbi Yossi says - that the Kohanim were even permitted to remove the old loaves in the morning and to place the fresh ones in the afternoon (because, in his opinion, as long as the Table does not spend the night without the loaves, it still constitutes "Tamid").

(c) The Rabbanan require the fresh loaves to be placed simultaneously with the removal of the old ones (because, according to them "Tamid" means exactly what it says). Note: that 'Kol ha'Yom' in this particular case has a different connotation than it does in all the other cases in the Mishnah.

(d) 'Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Laylah Kasher Kol ha'Laylah' comes to include the eating of the Korban Pesach, like Rebbi Akiva. According to Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - the Korban Pesach must be eaten by mid-night (min ha'Torah - although Rebbi Akiva agrees that this is so mi'de'Rabbanan).

***** Hadran Alach, ha'Korei Lemafrei'a *****

***** ha'Korei es ha'Megilah *****


(a) The Ba'al Korei who Leins the Megilah does not need to stand for the reading of the *Megilah*. We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Atah Poh Amod Imadi" - that the Ba'al Korei who Leins from the *Torah* is obligated to stand.

(b) Were it not for this Pasuk - we would not dare to say that even Hashem (Kevayachol) stood up when reading the Torah to Moshe (who presumably, was considered like the whole of K'lal Yisrael).

(c) Rebbi Avahu (who is the author of the previous statement) also learns from this Pasuk (from the word "Imadi") - that a Rebbe who learns with his Talmidim should not allow them to sit on the floor whilst he sits on a couch (but either they all sit on couches or they all sit on the floor).

(a) On an ordinary weekday and at Shabbos Minchah, three people are called up to the Torah. One is not permitted to call up more ...
1. ... on a weekday - because of 'Bitul Melachah' (people need to go to work).
2. ... at Shabbos Minchah - because in former times, the Rav would Darshen most of the afternoon, and by the time they Davened Minchah it was already close to night.
(b) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, four people are called up on Rosh Chodesh and on Chol ha'Mo'ed, five on Yom-Tov, six on Yom Kipur and seven on Shabbos.

(c) One is never permitted to call up less than the prescribed amount of people. One ...

1. ... may call up more on Yom-Tov, Yom Kipur and Shabbos (because there is no Bitul Melachah).
2. ... reads the Haftarah - on the same days (and for the same reason).
(d) In the days of the Mishnah - they would recite *two* Berachos over the entire Leining, the first Aliyah would recite the Berachah *before* Leining, and the last Aliyah, the Berachah *after* Leining.
(a) When the Mishnah in Sotah says that from the time that Raban Gamliel died, Kevod ha'Torah became Bateil - it is referring to the fact that, until then, people used to learn Torah standing up (out of respect), and it was when Raban Gamliel died that people became weaker, and they began learning sitting-down.

(b) In one Pasuk Moshe writes "va'Eishev ba'Har"; and in another, "va'Anochi Amadti ba'Har". Rav says that Moshe stood when he heard the Halachah from Hashem, but sat down when he reviewed it on his own. Rebbi Chanina explains that in fact, Moshe neither stood nor sat, but learned in a bowing position.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan draws on the Pasuk "va'Teishvu be'Kadesh" to resolve it. "va'Teishev" means, not "and you *sat* in Kadeish", but "and you *stayed* in Kadeish". And that is what Moshe meant when he wrote "va'Eishev ba'Har".

(d) Rava answers the Kashya in similar vein to Rav. According to him, Moshe stood for the easier Halachos, and sat for the more difficult ones.




(a) We learned in our Mishnah that even two people may read the Megilah simultaneously. This is permitted, despite the fact that, when it comes to K'ri'as ha'Torah and reading in the Navi, it is forbidden - because, whereas under normal circumstances it is difficult to hear properly when two people speak at the same time, Megilah is different, because it is so popular, that everyone makes the effort to listen carefully however many people Lein it together.

(b) Hallel - has the same Din as Megilah in this regard (and for the same reason).

(c) Even though two people are even forbidden to translate *Torah* simultaneously, it is nevertheless permitted with regard to *Navi* - because there are not many Mitzvos in Navi, so it doesn't matter if people do not hear it clearly.

(d) It makes no difference whether two or ten people read the Megilah together - either way, the community is Yotze.

(a) We learned in our Mishnah that reciting a Berachah over the Megilah depends on the Minhag. Abaye qualifies this - by restricting the Mishnah to the Berachah that one recites *after* the Megilah, but not to the one *before* it, which is obligatory.

(b) The source for this is the principle of Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel - that one always recites a Berachah before performing a Mitzvah (even though there are numerous exceptions to this rule).

(c) We know that 'Over' implies 'before' (i.e. in front of) from various sources: some say from "va'Yaratz Achima'atz ... *va'Ya'avor* es ha'Kushi", and others, from "*va'Ya'avor* Malkam Lifneihem, va'Hashem be'Rosham". Others again, learn it from the Pasuk in Vayishlach - "ve'Hu Avar Lifneihem" (with regard to Ya'akov Avinu passing in front of his wives to go and greet Eisav).

(a) The Si'man for the Berachos that one recites before reading the Megilah is 'M.N.Ch.' - representing 'al *M*ikra Megilah', 'she'Asah *N*isim ... ', and 'she'he'*Chi*yanu'.

(b) According to some, the Berachah after the Megilah concludes ' ... ha'Nifra le'Yisrael mi'Kol Tzareihem', according to Rava - it concludes 'ha'Keil ha'Moshi'a'.

(c) We therefore say both ' ... ha'Nifra le'Yisrael mi'Kol Tzareihem, ha'Keil ha'Moshi'a'.

(a) According to Rav Asi, the three Aliyos that one Leins on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos Minchah correspond to Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim; according to Rava - it corresponds to the Kohanim, the Levi'im and the Yisre'eilim.

(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, the ten (minimum) Pesukim that one Leins correspond to the ten Batlanim; according to Rav Yosef - they correspond to the Ten Commandments.

(c) In the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, they correspond to the ten commands with which Hashem created the world. There is no problem with the fact that the Pasuk mentions only *nine* commands (i.e. the word "va'Yomer" appears only nine times) - because "Bereishis" is considered a command, as well (as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "bi'D'var Hashem Shamayim Na'asu").

(a) Since the three Aliyos read (at least) ten Pesukim between them, someone has to read four Pesukim. Whoever reads four, says Rava, is praiseworthy. In this regard, we learn from ...
1. ... the three boxes with which they emptied the Terumas ha'Lishkah - that the first is praiseworthy, because they would mark the boxes with 'Aleph', 'Beis' and 'Gimel', in order to know which box was filled first.
2. ... the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "el Mul P'nei ha'Menorah Ya'iru Shiv'as ha'Neiros" - that the middle is important, because the three right-hand lights and the three left-hand ones faced it, whilst it faced westwards (towards the Shechinah). This Beraisa holds that the Menorah was placed facing north-south.
3. ... the principle 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh ve'Lo Moridin' - that it is the last one which is the most important.
(b) Rav Papa praised - the first Aliyah for Leining four Pesukim in the Beis- Hamedrash of Abi Gubar.

(c) We learned in our Mishnah (as clarified by the Tana in the Beraisa) that only the first person and the last one recited a Berachah over the Leining. The Amora'im changed it to our current Minhag (where *each person* who is called up recites two Berachos) - because of people who come *late* to Shul (and who will otherwise think that no Berachah is recited *before* Leining), and because of those who leave *early* (and who will think that no Berachah is recited *after* Leining).

(a) The first Parshah of the Rosh Chodesh Leining ("Tzav es B'nei Yisrael") only contains eight Pesukim, creating a problem with regard to the four Aliyos on Rosh Chodesh. The problem with ...
1. ... Leining three Pesukim each, leving Sh'lishi to Lein the last two Pesukim plus the two Pesukim of "u've'Yom ha'Shabbos" is that - one is not permitted to stop within three Pesukim of the end of a Parshah.
2. ... dividing it between the Kohen and the Levi - four Pesukim each, is that then - we will have a problem with dividing the remaining seven Pesukim into two Aliyos (as we shall now see).
(b) We cannot let Sh'lishi Lein the two Pesukim of "u've'Yom ha'Shabbos plus *two* Pesukim from "u've'Roshei Chodsheichem", leaving Revi'i to Lein the last three Pesukim - because one is not permitted to stop within three Pesukim of the beginning of a Parshah.

(c) Nor can we let Sh'lishi Lein *three* Pesukim from "u've'Roshei Chodsheichem" - because that will leave us with only *two* Pesukim till the end of the Parshah.

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