(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Megilah 20



(a) The rejected Rebbi Yehudah's own testimony that, as a Katan, he once read the Megilah 'above' Rebbi Tarfon and the Rabbanan, who did not protest (proving that the reading of a Katan is acceptable) - on the grounds that one cannot accept the testimony of a Katan (even after he grows up).

(b) They also rejected Rebbi's (similar) testimony (that he once read as a Katan in front of Rebbi Yehudah, who did not protest either) - because how can one bring a proof for Rebbi Yehudah's opinion from Rebbi Yehudah?

(a) The earliest time that one may read the Megilah (Lechatchilah) - is from Hanetz ha'Chamah (sunrise).

(b) Tevilah too, should not be performed then. We are talking about - the Tevilah of Tamei Meis or of a Zav on their seventh day.

(c) The prohibition of Toveling by night - is confined to the seventh night. From then on, as long a Tamei Meis or a Zav who has not yet Toveled may Tovel whenever they wish.

(d) Besides Haza'ah (which may also forbidden on the *night* of the third and seventh days of Tum'as Meis) - a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom (a woman who had one two sightings during her period of Zivus) should not Tovel before sunrise.

3) Bedieved, in the above cases, if one did Tovel before sunrise - provided the Tevilah was performed after Amud ha'Shachar (dawnbreak) it is Kasher Bedieved.


(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Esther "ve'ha'Yamim ha'Eileh Nizkarim ve'Na'asim" - that the Megilah must be read by day.

(b) This is not a Kashya on Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who obligates the first reading of the Megilah at night-time - because we are speaking about the second (day) reading.

(c) We learn that Milah must be performed by day - from the Pasuk in Sazri'a "*u'va'Yom* ha'Shemini Yimol".

(d) We know that Haza'ah must be performed by day, from the Pasuk "ve'Hizah ha'Tahor al ha'Tamei *ba'Yom* ha'Shelishi ... ". And we know that the same applies to Tevilah on the seventh day - because at end of that PAsuk the Torah writes "ve'Rachatz ba'Mayim ... " (compariing Tevilah to Haza'ah).

(a) Despite having already said 've'Lo Tovlin', the Tana finds it necessary to insert a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom in the Mishnah - because we would otherwise have compared her to the first sighting of a Zav, who is even permitted to Tovel by day, seeing as he is compared to a Ba'al Keri (who may Tovel by day).

(b) Now we know that a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom cannot Tovel by day (due to the Pasuk in Metzora) "Kol Yemei Zovah ke'Mishkav Nidasah Yihyeh Lah".

(c) According to the current contention, we would have at least permitted her to Tovel the following night.

(d) The reason that she has to wait for the morning before Toveling is - because she has is obligated to count (seven clean days), and all counting must be done by day, as the Torah writes "ve'Safrah Lah Shiv'as *Yamim*" (ibid.)




(a) We learned in our Mishnah that Bedieved, one is Yotze if one hears the Megilah from Amud ha'Shachar - because that is when daytime really begins (and the reason that Chazal instituted not to perform the Mitzvos before ha'Netz ha'Chamah is because they were afraid that one may mistakenly, perform them before dawnbreak).

(b) Initially, Rava learns this from the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yikra Elokim *la'Or* Yom" - which he interprets to mean 'le'Meir u'Ba (meaning from the period of time between dawnbreak and sunrise, when the sun first shines before rising).

(c) We refute his source however, from the continuation of the Pasuk - "ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" (which would then mean "and to the period when the sun sets before it becomes completely dark He called 'night' " - 'the period between sunset and nightfall); and that be, because we have a ruling that night only begins with nightfall.

(a) So Rebbi Zeira learns it from the Pasuk in Nechemyah - which describes how half the people the would hold swords whilst the other half worked (building of the walls of Yerushalayim) from dawnbreak until nightfall (when the stars appeared).

(b) We need the support of a second Pasuk "ve'Hayu Lanu ha'Laylah Mishmar ve'ha'Yom Melachah" - because from the first alone there is no indication that the period mentioned refers to 'day', only that that was when they worked.

(a) One is permitted to read the Megilah - all day.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Vayeira "va'Yashkeim Avraham ba'Boker" - that one should perform a Mitzvah as soon as possible ('Z'rizin Makdimin be'Mitzvos').

(c) The Mitzvah of cutting the barley for the Omer (on the second night of Pesach), which must be performed at night-time - may be performed all night.

(a) Hallel too, like Megilah, is Kasher all day. Rav Yosef learns it from "Zeh *ha'Yom* Asah Hashem". Others learn it from "mi'Mizrach Shemesh ad Mevo'o".

(b) And the same applies to Lulav and Shofar. We learn ...

1. ... Lulav - "u'Lekachtem Lachem *ba'Yom* ha'Rishon" (Emor).
2. ... Shofar - "Yom Teru'ah Yihyeh Lachem" (Pinchas).
(c) And it applies also to the Korban Musaf and to Tefilas Musaf, to the Viduy (confession) that the Tzibur and the Kohen Gadol (who sinned) make over their (Chatas) bull and to the Viduy of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. We learn that the Korban Musaf must be brought in the day from the Pasuk in Emor "D'var Yom be'Yomo" and the Viduy on Yom Kipur from "ve'Chiper Ba'ado ... " (and [a verbal] Kaparah must be performed by day). From where do we know that ...
1. ... Tefilas Musaf must be recited by day - from the Korban (because it is logical to learn the one from the other, seeing as it comes to commemorate it).
2. ... the Viduy of the Tzibur that sinned and of the Kohen Gadol must be said by day - from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem" (regarding the verbal confession on Yom Kipur); and the Viduy of the Tzibur that sinned from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (Kaparah Kaparah from Yom Kipur).
(d) There are many other Mitzvos that are included in this list. We learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Ki Savo "ve'Amarta Lifnei Hashem Elokecha Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis" and "*ha'Yom* ha'Zeh, Hashem Elokecha Metzav'cha" - that the Mitzvah of Viduy Ma'asros (on Erev Pesach of every fourth year) must be performed by day.
(a) With regard to Korbanos, we learn that Shechitah must be performed by day from the Pasuk in Shoftim "be'Yom Zivcha'chem ... ", and all Avodos (incorporating Melikah, Kemitzah, Haktarah and Hazayah) from the Pasuk in Tzav "be'Yom Tzavoso es B'nei Yisrael" (see Tosfos DH 'li'Kemitzah'). Haktarah can only refer to the burning of the Kometz of the Minchah - because we already learned in our Mishnah that the burning of the limbs of the animal Korbanos could be performed all night.

(b) We learn Tenufah (the waving) from the Pasuk in Emor (*be'Yom* Hanifchem es ha'Omer)". We learn Hagashah (bringing the Kemitzah of the Minchah to the south-western corner of the Mizbe'ach) - from (by virtue of its juxtaposition to Tenufah in the Parshah of Sotah) it is compared to Tenufah.

(c) We learn from the juxtaposition of the two words "ve'Samach ve'Shachat" - that the Semichah must be performed (immediately after the Shechitah and that it must be performed) like the Shechitah, by day.

(d) We learn that giving the Sotah to drink must be performed by day from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "ve'Asah Lah ha'Kohen es Kol ha'Torah ha'Zos" (Naso) and "Al-pi ha'Torah Asher Yorucha" - which refers to judgement. We know that the judges are obligated to judge by day - because of the Pasuk "ve'Hayah be'Yom Hanchilo es Banav".

11) The Derashah of "be'Yom Tzavoso es B'nei Yisrael" (in 9a.) incorporated most of the Avodos. According to Rashi's second explanation, the Tana precludes from the list ...
1. ... Shechitah - because Shechitah is not considered an Avodah (which is why it may be performed by a Zar - a non-Kohen).
2. ... Tenufah and Hagashah - because unlike other Avodos, they are dispensible (i.e. without them, the Korban is still Kasher).
Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,