ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Megilah 20
(a) The rejected Rebbi Yehudah's own testimony that, as a Katan, he once read
the Megilah 'above' Rebbi Tarfon and the Rabbanan, who did not protest
(proving that the reading of a Katan is acceptable) - on the grounds that one
cannot accept the testimony of a Katan (even after he grows up).
(b) They also rejected Rebbi's (similar) testimony (that he once read as a
Katan in front of Rebbi Yehudah, who did not protest either) - because how
can one bring a proof for Rebbi Yehudah's opinion from Rebbi Yehudah?
(a) The earliest time that one may read the Megilah (Lechatchilah) - is from
Hanetz ha'Chamah (sunrise).
Bedieved, in the above cases, if one did Tovel before sunrise - provided the
Tevilah was performed after Amud ha'Shachar (dawnbreak) it is Kasher
(b) Tevilah too, should not be performed then. We are talking about - the
Tevilah of Tamei Meis or of a Zav on their seventh day.
(c) The prohibition of Toveling by night - is confined to the seventh night.
From then on, as long a Tamei Meis or a Zav who has not yet Toveled may Tovel
whenever they wish.
(d) Besides Haza'ah (which may also forbidden on the *night* of the third and
seventh days of Tum'as Meis) - a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom (a woman who had
one two sightings during her period of Zivus) should not Tovel before
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Esther "ve'ha'Yamim ha'Eileh Nizkarim
ve'Na'asim" - that the Megilah must be read by day.
(b) This is not a Kashya on Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who obligates the first
reading of the Megilah at night-time - because we are speaking about the
second (day) reading.
(c) We learn that Milah must be performed by day - from the Pasuk in Sazri'a
"*u'va'Yom* ha'Shemini Yimol".
(d) We know that Haza'ah must be performed by day, from the Pasuk "ve'Hizah
ha'Tahor al ha'Tamei *ba'Yom* ha'Shelishi ... ". And we know that the same
applies to Tevilah on the seventh day - because at end of that PAsuk the
Torah writes "ve'Rachatz ba'Mayim ... " (compariing Tevilah to Haza'ah).
(a) Despite having already said 've'Lo Tovlin', the Tana finds it necessary
to insert a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom in the Mishnah - because we would
otherwise have compared her to the first sighting of a Zav, who is even
permitted to Tovel by day, seeing as he is compared to a Ba'al Keri (who may
Tovel by day).
(b) Now we know that a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom cannot Tovel by day (due to
the Pasuk in Metzora) "Kol Yemei Zovah ke'Mishkav Nidasah Yihyeh Lah".
(c) According to the current contention, we would have at least permitted her
to Tovel the following night.
(d) The reason that she has to wait for the morning before Toveling is -
because she has is obligated to count (seven clean days), and all counting
must be done by day, as the Torah writes "ve'Safrah Lah Shiv'as *Yamim*"
(a) We learned in our Mishnah that Bedieved, one is Yotze if one hears the
Megilah from Amud ha'Shachar - because that is when daytime really begins
(and the reason that Chazal instituted not to perform the Mitzvos before
ha'Netz ha'Chamah is because they were afraid that one may mistakenly,
perform them before dawnbreak).
(b) Initially, Rava learns this from the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yikra Elokim
*la'Or* Yom" - which he interprets to mean 'le'Meir u'Ba (meaning from the
period of time between dawnbreak and sunrise, when the sun first shines
(c) We refute his source however, from the continuation of the Pasuk -
"ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" (which would then mean "and to the period when
the sun sets before it becomes completely dark He called 'night' " - 'the
period between sunset and nightfall); and that be, because we have a ruling
that night only begins with nightfall.
(a) So Rebbi Zeira learns it from the Pasuk in Nechemyah - which describes
how half the people the would hold swords whilst the other half worked
(building of the walls of Yerushalayim) from dawnbreak until nightfall (when
the stars appeared).
(b) We need the support of a second Pasuk "ve'Hayu Lanu ha'Laylah Mishmar
ve'ha'Yom Melachah" - because from the first alone there is no indication
that the period mentioned refers to 'day', only that that was when they
(a) One is permitted to read the Megilah - all day.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Vayeira "va'Yashkeim Avraham ba'Boker" - that
one should perform a Mitzvah as soon as possible ('Z'rizin Makdimin
(c) The Mitzvah of cutting the barley for the Omer (on the second night of
Pesach), which must be performed at night-time - may be performed all night.
(a) Hallel too, like Megilah, is Kasher all day. Rav Yosef learns it from
"Zeh *ha'Yom* Asah Hashem". Others learn it from "mi'Mizrach Shemesh ad
(b) And the same applies to Lulav and Shofar. We learn ...
1. ... Lulav - "u'Lekachtem Lachem *ba'Yom* ha'Rishon" (Emor).
(c) And it applies also to the Korban Musaf and to Tefilas Musaf, to the
Viduy (confession) that the Tzibur and the Kohen Gadol (who sinned) make over
their (Chatas) bull and to the Viduy of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. We
learn that the Korban Musaf must be brought in the day from the Pasuk in Emor
"D'var Yom be'Yomo" and the Viduy on Yom Kipur from "ve'Chiper Ba'ado ... "
(and [a verbal] Kaparah must be performed by day). From where do we know
2. ... Shofar - "Yom Teru'ah Yihyeh Lachem" (Pinchas).
1. ... Tefilas Musaf must be recited by day - from the Korban (because it is
logical to learn the one from the other, seeing as it comes to commemorate
(d) There are many other Mitzvos that are included in this list. We learn
from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Ki Savo "ve'Amarta Lifnei Hashem
Elokecha Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis" and "*ha'Yom* ha'Zeh, Hashem
Elokecha Metzav'cha" - that the Mitzvah of Viduy Ma'asros (on Erev Pesach of
every fourth year) must be performed by day.
2. ... the Viduy of the Tzibur that sinned and of the Kohen Gadol must be
said by day - from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem"
(regarding the verbal confession on Yom Kipur); and the Viduy of the Tzibur
that sinned from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (Kaparah Kaparah from Yom Kipur).
(a) With regard to Korbanos, we learn that Shechitah must be performed by day
from the Pasuk in Shoftim "be'Yom Zivcha'chem ... ", and all Avodos
(incorporating Melikah, Kemitzah, Haktarah and Hazayah) from the Pasuk in
Tzav "be'Yom Tzavoso es B'nei Yisrael" (see Tosfos DH 'li'Kemitzah').
Haktarah can only refer to the burning of the Kometz of the Minchah - because
we already learned in our Mishnah that the burning of the limbs of the animal
Korbanos could be performed all night.
The Derashah of "be'Yom Tzavoso es B'nei Yisrael" (in 9a.) incorporated most
of the Avodos. According to Rashi's second explanation, the Tana precludes
from the list ...
(b) We learn Tenufah (the waving) from the Pasuk in Emor (*be'Yom* Hanifchem
es ha'Omer)". We learn Hagashah (bringing the Kemitzah of the Minchah to the
south-western corner of the Mizbe'ach) - from (by virtue of its juxtaposition
to Tenufah in the Parshah of Sotah) it is compared to Tenufah.
(c) We learn from the juxtaposition of the two words "ve'Samach ve'Shachat" -
that the Semichah must be performed (immediately after the Shechitah and that
it must be performed) like the Shechitah, by day.
(d) We learn that giving the Sotah to drink must be performed by day from the
'Gezeirah-Shavah' "ve'Asah Lah ha'Kohen es Kol ha'Torah ha'Zos" (Naso) and
"Al-pi ha'Torah Asher Yorucha" - which refers to judgement. We know that the
judges are obligated to judge by day - because of the Pasuk "ve'Hayah be'Yom
Hanchilo es Banav".
1. ... Shechitah - because Shechitah is not considered an Avodah (which is
why it may be performed by a Zar - a non-Kohen).
2. ... Tenufah and Hagashah - because unlike other Avodos, they are
dispensible (i.e. without them, the Korban is still Kasher).