ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Megilah 19
MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) Our Mishnah invalidates a Megilah that is written with Sam, Sikra, Kumus
and Kankantum. 'Sam' is arsenic.
1. Sikra - is red paint (used for painting shutters).
(b) The Mishnah also invalidates a Megilah that is written on Neyar or on
Diftera. 'Neyar' is a paper manufactured from herbs using glue. 'Diftera' -
is skins that have been tanned, salted and treated with flour in water, but
to which gall-nuts have not been added.
2. Kumus - is sap (from a tree).
3. Kankantum - a black dye (used to dye shoes).
(c) We learn from ...
1. ... "ki'Ch'savam ve'chi'Z'manam" - that the Megilah must be written in
2. ... "the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "va'Tichtov Esther ha'Malkah" (Esther) and
"va'Yomer Lahem Baruch ... va'Ani Kosev al ha'Seifer u'vi'D'yo" (Yirmiyah) -
that the Megilah must be written in ink.
(a) According to Rebbi Meir, one has to read the entire Megilah, according to
Rebbi Yehudah, from "Ish Yehudi". Rebbi Yossi says - that one must read from
"Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh (Gidal ha'Melech ...es Haman").
(b) The fourth opinion - is that of Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai, in whose opinion
one must begin from "ba'Laylah ha'Hu".
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah states that if a ben Ir who is in a K'rach on the
fourteenth intends to return home, he reads on the fourteenth, otherwise, he
reads on the fifteenth (like the residents of the town where he is); and the
same goes for a ben K'rach who is in an Ir on the fourteenth (who will read
on the fourteenth if he intends to return home). In order not to read on the
fourteenth night - the latter must intend to leave the Ir before dawn-break
of the fourteenth.
(b) A ben Ir who intends to remain in the K'rach until the morning of the
fifteenth - reads on the fifteenth, and not on the fourteenth.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "Al-Kein ha'Yehudim ha'P'razim, *ha'Yoshvim
be'Arei ha'P'razos*" - that a ben K'rach who becomes a P'razi for the day is
considered a P'razi and reads the Megilah on the fourteenth.
(d) We apply the same principle to a 'Mukaf for a day' - because if a P'razi
for the day is called a P'razi, then why should a Mukaf for the day not be
called a Mukaf?
(a) Rava says that a ben K'far who is in an Ir on the night of the
fourteenth, reads the Megilah then (even if he has read the Megilah already),
even if he intends to return before the morning - because the Takanah of
reading the Megilah early was a concession for the villagers, releasing them
from the obligation to go into town on the fourteenth (in payment for their
services on behalf of the towns). But if a villager is already in town, then,
seeing as his time is really the fourteenth, there is no reason as to why he
should not read the Megilah on the fourteenth.
(b) The Beraisa states that a ben K'rach who went to an Ir reads like his
place, even if he intends to remain there until the fourteenth morning. This
Beraisa cannot be correct the way it stands - because we have already learned
that a ben K'rach who is in an Ir until the morning of the fourteenth, reads
on the fourteenth.
(c) So we change 'a ben K'rach' to 'a ben K'far'. Rava reconciles the Beraisa
with his previous statement by making a further change in the Beraisa.
Instead of 'reads like his place' - we change it to 'reads together with
(a) We learned earlier that the Tana'im argue over how much one needs to read
in order to be Yotze. According to Rebbi Yochanan, they all derive their
respective opinions from the same source, from "es Kol Tokef".
1. Rebbi Meir (who says 'all of it') explains "es Kol Tokef" to mean - Tokfo
(b) According to Rav Huna, they all derive it from "u'Mah Ra'u al Kachah,
u'Mah Higi'a Aleihem". The reason that ...
2. ... Rebbi Yehudah (who says from 'Ish Yehudi') - Tokfo shel Mordechai.
3. ... Rebbi Yossi ('Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh") - Tokfo shel Haman.
4. ... Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai ('ba'Laylah ha'Hu') - Tokfo shel Nes.
1. ... Achashverosh used the holy vessels of the Beis Hamikdash was because -
he figured that the seventy years of Galus had passed and the Jews had not
gone free. On account of it - Vashti was killed.
(c) The Halachah is like Rebbi Meir - that one must read all of the Megilah
in order to be Yotzei.
2. ... Mordechai incited Haman by refusing to bow down to him was - because
he made himself a god. On account of it - the miracle of Purim occurred.
3. ... Haman became angry with all the Jews was - because Mordechai refused
to bow down to him. On account of it - he together with his sons, were
4. ... Achashverosh decided to send for the Book of Chronicles was because -
Esther invited Haman to the party. Because of it - a miracle occurred.
(d) All the Tana'im agree however - that the entire Megilah must be placed in
front of the Ba'al Korei (even if he does need to read all of it).
(a) The Megilah is called ...
1. ... a Seifer - inasmuch as it must be stitched with the gut of an animal,
and not with linen threads.
(b) When Rav Nachman adds that the threads must be 'Meshulashin' - he means
that from the top of the parchment to the first stitch, from the first to the
second, from the second to the third and from the third till the bottom of
the parchment should all be the same distance.
2. ... an Igeres - inasmuch as it does not require *five* stitches at each
point where it is stitched, but will suffice with *three*.
(c) A Megilah that is written as part of Kesuvim, is Kasher - provided the
parchment on which it is written is not equal with rest of the Seifer (i.e.
it either protrudes above the rest of the parchment or is recessed).
The Sugyos of Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan.
(d) A Megilah is Kasher even if it is level with the rest of Kesuvim - when
it is read privately (not in a Tzibur).
(a) Rebbi Yochanan said that leaving a little of a Seifer unstitched at the
top and at the bottom is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'. Rebbi Chiya bar Aba
modifies this statement - it is not really Halachah ... but mi'de'Rabbanan,
he explains, in order to give a little leeway, so that, should one close the
Seifer tightly, it will not split in two.
(b) Had the tiniest crack remained in the rock of the cave in which Moshe
Rabeinu , and later Eliyahu, hid, and which Hashem covered with His Hand
(Kevayachol) as He went past - Moshe and Eliyahu would not have survived, for
so the Pasuk writes in Ki Sisa "Ki Lo Yir'ani ha'Adam va'Chai".
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "va'Aleihem ke'Chol ha'Devarim Asher Diber Hashem
Imachem ba'Har", that Hashem showed Moshe 'Dikdukei Torah, Dikdukei Sofrim,
u'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin le'Chadeish'. 'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin
le'Chadeish' refers to Mikra Megilah.
1. 'Dikdukei Torah' - refers to all words that come to include (such as "es"
and "Gam"), and words that come to exclude (such as "Ach" and "Rak").
2. 'Dikdukei Sofrim' - to what the later Chachamim delved into the words of
the earlier ones. (It is unclear what Rashi means. Perhaps he means for
example, the words of the Amora'im, explaining the statements of the
(a) The Tana Kama invalidates a Cheresh, Shotah or Katan from reading the
Megilah. Rebbi Yehudah - validates the reading of a Katan.
(b) Assuming that a Cheresh is not even Yotze Bedieved - the author of our
Mishnah will be Rebbi Yossi.
(c) We initially presume that, according to the Tana of our Mishnah, a
Cheresh is not even Yotze Bedieved - because we assume that a Cheresh must
tally with a Shoteh (who is certainly not Yotze Bedieved).
(a) We then suggest that a Cheresh does not necessarily need to tally with a
Shoteh, and that the author could therefore be Rebbi Yehudah. The problem
with this - is that he is the author of the Seifa (which validated the
reading of a Katan); so how can the author of the Reisha (which invalidates
it) be Rebbi Yehudah, too?
(b) We nevertheless establish both the Reisha and the Seifa of our Mishnah
like Rebbi Yehudah - by establishing the Reisha by a Katan who has *not* yet
reached the age of Chinuch, and the Seifa, by one who *has* (and amending the
Lashon of the Mishnah accordingly). Note: 'Cheresh' in our Mishnah refers to
a person who cannot hear, but who is not dumb (and not to a deaf-mute, which
is the usual connotation of 'Cheresh').
(c) Establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yehudah creates a problem with the
Beraisa of Yehudah the son of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, who permits a dumb
person to give Terumah Lechatchilah (despite the fact that he is unable to
recite a Berachah) - because, if Rebbi Yehudah forbids a deaf person to
recite the Megilah (or to perform any Mitzvah that requires speech)
Lechatchilah, then who will be the author of that Beraisa (neither Rebbi
Yossi, who forbids him even Bedieved, nor Rebbi Yehudah)?
(d) On the other hand, it is no better to establish our Mishnah like Rebbi
Yossi (in which case Rebbi Yehudah will permit a dumb person even
Lechatchilah) - because then, who will the author of the other Beraisa, which
forbids Benching silently (in one's heart) Lechatchilah, but renders someone
who does so Yotze Bedieved? Again, neither Rebbi Yossi, nor Rebbi Yehudah?
(a) We establish the Beraisa (of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi) like Rebbi Yehudah
quoting his own opinion - whereas Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah is quoting his
Rebbe, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (who explicitly learns like this in a
Beraisa). The author of the previous Beraisa too, which forbids Benching
silently Lechatchilah is Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah.
(b) Rebbi Meir learns from the Pasuk "Asher Anochi Metzav'cha ha'Yom al
Levavecha" - that the main Mitzvah of reciting the Shema (and whatever else
needs to be recited) is in the heart (and that it is not therefore necessary
to say it out aloud).
(c) Having ascertained that Rebbi Meir permits *thinking* the Shema, Berachos
... , the author of the Beraisa of Yehudah Brei de'Rav Shimon ben Pazi Shimon
will now be Rebbi Meir whereas the author of the Beraisa of Birchas ha'Mazon
is Rebbi Yehudah (who is also the author of our Mishnah, and who in fact,
agrees with Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah that Lechatchilah, one is obligated to
recite the Shema, the Megilah etc. out loud.