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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 17

MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) Yishmael was fourteen years older than Yitzchak (Yishmael was born when Avraham was eighty-six; Yitzchak, when he was a hundred).

(b) Yishmael ...

  1. ... died at the age of - a hundred and thirty seven.
  2. ... was seventy-four - when Ya'akov was born.
  3. ... was in the last year of his life - when Ya'akov was blessed.
(c) Based on the fact that Eisav married Machalas bas Yishmael immediately after Ya'akov was blessed, we can prove that Yishmael died at that stage (giving us Ya'akov's age as being sixty-three), from the Pasuk which informs us that Eisav married Machalas bas Yishmael *Achos Nevayos* - implying that, whereas Yishmael betrothed his daughter to Eisav, it was her brother Nevayos who married her off (because Yishmael died before the wedding).
1. Fourteen years elapsed - from the time that Ya'akov arrived in Charan until Yosef was born (the fourteen years that he worked for Rachel and Le'ah; before the six years that he worked for himself).
2. Thirty-nine years elapsed from the time that Yosef was born until Ya'akov came down to Egypt and stood before Par'oh (thirty years until Yosef stood before Par'oh, seven years of plenty and two, of famine).
(b) We would have expected Ya'akov to be - a hundred and sixteen at that time (63+14+39).

(c) From the fact that he told Par'oh that he was a hundred and thirty at the time - we learn that there must be fourteen missing from the events listed above (that comprised Ya'akov's life), proving that he spent fourteen years in the Yeshiva of Shem and Eiver (for which he was not punished).

(a) Eiver (the Rosh Yeshivah) died - two years after Ya'akov arrived in Charan.

(b) Yosef separated from his father for twenty-two years - because Ya'akov separated from his parents for twenty-two years.

(c) Ya'akov may have spent only *twenty* years in Charan - but he spent a further two years on the journey home.

(d) Ya'akov spent ...

1. ... eighteen months in Sukos.
2. ... six months in Beis-Eil.
***** Hadran Alach 'Megilah Nikreis' *****

***** Perek 'ha'Korei es ha'Megilah' *****


(a) Someone who reads (even the chapters of) the Megilah backwards is not Yotze. Rava tries to prove this from the Pasuk "Liheyos Osim es Sh'nei ha'Yamim ki'Ch'savam ve'chi'Z'manam" - because just as the times (the fourteenth and the fifteenth) cannot be reversed, neither can the reading of the Megilah.

(b) This Pasuk however, cannot be the sole source - because it is talking about 'Asiyah' (the other Mitzvos of Purim), and not 'Zechirah' (the reading of the Megilah).

(c) So we cite, as an additional source, the Pasuk "ve'ha'Yamim ha'Eileh Nizkarim ve'Na'asim" - which compare the Zechirah to the Asiyah.

(d) Neither can one be Yotze if one recites - the Shema, Tefilah or Hallel backwards.

5) The Amora'im quote four sources for the prohibition of reciting Hallel backwards: 1. "mi'Mizrach Shemesh ad Mevo'o" (from the sun's cycle); 2. "Zeh ha'Yom Asah Hashem" (from the hours of the day). The other two - are 3. "*Yehi* Sheim Hashem Mevorach" (Havayah - as it is and not backwards) and 4. "me'Atah ve'Ad Olam" (forwards in time and not backwards).


(a) Rebbi learns from the Pasuk "*ve'Hayu* ha'Devarim ha'Eileh" - that one must read the Shema in Lashon ha'Kodesh, and not in any other language.

(b) The Rabbanan learn that the Shema may be recited in any language - from the word "Shema" (implying in any language that you understand).


1. Rebbi learns from "Shema" - that one must hear what one is saying.
2. The Rabbanan learn from "ve'Hayu" - that one cannot read the Pesukim of the Shema backwards.
(d) Rebbi learns the latter Din from the superfluous 'Hey' in "ha'Devarim". The Rabbanan ...
1. ... learn - nothing from there, because, in their opinion, the 'Hey' is not superfluous (but a manner of speech).
2. ... say that someone who reads the Shema but does not hear what he is saying - is Yotze.



(a) We suggest that, according to Rebbi, the rest of the Torah can be recited in any language (since otherwise, why would he need a Pasuk requiring confining the Shema to Lashon ha'Kodesh?). 'The rest of the Torah' - means whatever we read in Shul (i.e. Parshas Zachor and perhaps Parshas Parah) (according to Tosfos DH 'Kol', it means whatever needs to be recited, such as Chalitzah, Eglah Arufah etc.).

(b) We refute this suggestion (i.e. Rebbi could even hold that the rest of the Torah too, must be recited in Lashon ha'Kodesh, and still, the Torah needs to write "va'Hayu") - because otherwise, he would Darshen "Shema" to mean in any language (like the Rabbanan).

(c) Similarly, the Rabbanan who hold that the Shema may be recited in any language, may well hold that the rest of the Torah too, may be recited in any language, yet the Torah needs to write "Shema" - because otherwise, they would Darshen "ve'Hayu" to mean specifically in Lashon ha'Kodesh (like Rebbi).

The Sugya of the eighteen Berachos of the Amidah


(a) Chazal derive the first three Berachos of the Amidah from the Kapitel in Tehilim that we recite every Shabbos when the Torah is taken out (Mizmor le'David). We derive the Berachah of ...
1. ... Avos - from "Havu la'Hashem *B'nei Eilim*".
2. ... Gevuros - from "Havu la'Hashem Kavod *va'Oz*".
3. ... Kedushos - from "Havu la'Hashem Kavod Shemo, Hishtachavu la'Hashem be'Hadras *Kodesh*".
(b) We learn from the juxtaposition of the Pasuk in Yeshayah ...
1. ... "*ve'Hikdishu* es Kedosh Ya'akov ... " to that of "ve'Yad'u So'ei Ru'ach *Binah*" - that the B'rachah of Binah follows that of Kedushos.
2. ... "u'Levavo *Yavin*, *ve'Shav* ve'Rafa Lo" - that Teshuvah follows Binah.
(c) We learn the sequence of Teshuvah, Selichah and Refu'ah from the two Pesukim in Tehilim "va'*Yashov* el Hashem vi'Yerachameihu ve'el Elokeinu Ki Yarbeh li'*S'lo'ach*" and "ha'*Solei'ach* le'Chol Avoneichi *ha'Rofei* le'Chol Tachalu'aichi", respectively. Nevertheless, the Pasuk "ve'Shav ve'Rafa Lo" places Refu'ah after Binah - because *that* Refu'ah refers to the cure of Selichah (rather than the cure of an illness).

(d) In spite of the fact that the redemption appears later in the Berachos of Kibutz Galiyos, Bonei Yerushalayim and Tzemach David, the Berachah of Go'eil Yisrael is placed so early in the Amidah - because it does not refer to the ultimate Ge'ulah (like they do), but to the Ge'ulah from one's personal problems.

(a) Ge'ulah is specifically the *seventh* Berachah - because the ultimate redemption will occur in the seventh year (even though this Berachah does not refer to the ultimate redemption, as we just explained).

(b) In spite of Mar's statement that in the sixth year there will be loud noises, in the seventh, battles, and ben David will only come on Motza'ei Shevi'is, 'Go'eil Yisrael' is nevertheless the *seventh* Berachah - because the battles are considered the beginning of the Ge'ulah.

(c) Refu'ah is specifically the *eighth* Berachah - because of the Milah, which takes place on the eighth day and which requires a Refu'ah.

(a) The ninth Berachah is that of Birchas ha'Shanim, corresponding to the 'Mafki'ei She'arim', against whom David ha'Melech prayed in the *ninth* chapter of Tehilim. The 'Mafki'ei She'arim' - are wealthy people who stockpile the corn, forcing the prices up, causing the poor, more than anybody else, to suffer.

(b) It actually appears in Kapitel *ten* - because the first two chapters of Tehilim are considered one (as the Gemara explains in Berachos).

(c) Birchas ha'Shanim is followed by Kibutz Galiyos because of the juxtaposition of these two issues in the Pasuk in Yechezkel ("ve'Atem Harei Yisrael Anafchem Titnu u'Frichem Tis'u le'Ami Yisrael, ki Karvu Lamo"). We learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Yeshayah "ve'Ashivah Yadi Alayich ve'Etzrof ka'Bor Sigayich" and "ve'Ashivah Shoftayich ke'Varishonah" - that the gathering of the exiles is followed immediately by the judgment of the Resha'im (hence the next Berachah is that of ve'Lamalshinim).

(d) It is obvious that the destruction of the Resha'im follows their judgment. Yeshayah writes "ve'Shever Posh'im ve'Chata'im Yachdav. "Chata'im" refers to the Resha'im. "... Posh'im" - to those who do not believe in the Divine origin of Torah.

(a) The elevation of the Tzadikim - automatically follows the downfall of the Resha'im.

(b) We learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Kedoshim "Mipnei Seivah Takum ... " and "ve'Chi Yagur Itchem Ger" - that the converts go hand in hand with the Tzadikim, which is why they are placed together with them in the Amidah.

(c) The Berachah of the rise of the Tzadikim is followed ...

1. ... by that of Yerushalayim - because the rise of the Tzadikim will take place in Yerushalayim.
2. ... and then by es Tzemach David - because the building of Yerushalayim (the city of David) is automatically followed by the advent of David.
(d) When David arrives - Tefilah inevitably arrives with him (since David is synonymous with Tefilah).
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