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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 9

MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) In a Beraisa, the Tana requires a Seifer to be written in Ashuris (the script used in our Sifrei Torah), on a scroll and with ink. Rava tries to reconcile this with the Tana of our Mishnah, who permits a Seifer in any language - by establishing our Mishnah when the Seifer is at least written in the Ashuris script, and the Beraisa, when even the script is foreign too.

(b) We refute Rava's answer however, on the basis of the Reisha of the Beraisa which invalidates what should be written in Lashon ha'Kodesh if it is written in Arama'ic, and vice-versa. Now if, as Rava suggested, the Beraisa is speaking when it is written in a foreign script - then even Mikra which is written Mikra, and Targum, Targum should be Pasul. So why does the Tana say 'Mikra she'Kasvo Targum ... '?

(c) Neither can we answer the Kashya by establishing the Beraisa like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in our Mishnah, who is more stringent than the Tana Kama - because the Beraisa forbids Sefarim to be written in any language, whereas Raban Shimon ben Gamliel concedes Greek.

(a) We then try to establish the Beraisa by Tefilin and Mezuzos. We learn that Tefilin and Mezuzos must be written in Lashon ha'Kodesh - from "*ve'Hayu* ha'Devarim ha'Eileh" (implying 'as they are written').

(b) We refute this suggestion however - on the grounds that there are no Aramaic words in the Tefilin and Mezuzos.

(c) The Aramaic words that appear in the Torah are - "Yegar Sahadusa" (said by Lavan in va'Yeitzei).

(a) So we finally establish the Beraisa by Megilah. We learn that the Megilah must be written in Lashon ha'Kodesh - from the words "ki'Chesavam ve'chi'Leshonam".

(b) The Gemara brings two Aramaic words in the Megilah. One of them, is "ve'Nishma *Pisgam* ha'Melech" (Rav Papa). The other, is "ve'Chol ha'Nashim Yitnu *Yekar* le'Va'aleihen" (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak).

(c) Rav Ashi reestablishes the Beraisa according to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel by all Sefarim (other than Sifrei Torah), but according to Rebbi Yehudah - who says that Raban Shimon ben Gamliel concession to write Sefarim in Greek was restricted to *Sifrei-Torah*, due to the episode that is about to be discussed.

The fifteen changes in the Septuagint.
(a) The Chachamim made fifteen changes in the Torah for the benefit of King Ptolomy of Egypt. They wrote instead of ...
  1. ... "Bereishis Bara Elokim" - "Elokim Bara Bereishis".
  2. ... "*Na'aseh* Adam *be'Tzalmeinu Kidmuseinu*" - "*E'eseh* Adam *bi'Demus u've'Tzelem*".
(b) They changed "va'Yechal Elokim ba'Yom *ha'Shevi'i* ... " to "va'Yechal Elokim ba'Yom *ha'Shishi* ... " - so as to dispel the impression that Hashem performed work on Shabbos. (The truth is that the creation that Hashem formed on Shabbos was 'Menuchah' (rest).

(c) They wrote instead of ...

  1. ... "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'*am*" - "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'*o*".
  2. ... "Havah *Nerdah ve'Navlah* Sham Sefasam" - "Havah *Eirdah ve'Avaleh* Sham Sefasam".
(d) They wrote "va'Titzchak Sarah *bi'K'rovehah*" (and she laughed among her relatives) instead of "va'Titzchak Sarah *bi'Kirbah* (and she laughed inside her)" - so that they should not ask how it is that when Avraham laughed inside, Hashem did *not* take him to task, but when Sarah did so, He *did*.
(a) They wrote instead of ...
1. ... "Ki be'Apam Hargu *Ish* u'vi'Retzonam Ikru *Shor*" - "Ki be'Apam Hargu *Shor* u'vi'Retzonam Ikru *Eivus*".
2. ... "va'Yikach Moshe es Ishto ve'es Banav va'Yarkiveim al *ha'Chamor*" - "va'Yikach Moshe es Ishto ve'es Banav va'Yarkiveim al *Nos'ei B'nei Adam*".
3. ... "u'Moshav B'nei Yisrael Asher Yashvu *be'Mitzrayim* Arba Mei'os Shanah" - "u'Moshav B'nei Yisrael Asher Yashvu *be'Mitzrayim u've'Sha'ar Aratzos* Arba Mei'os Shanah".
(b) They changed ...
1. ... "va'Yishlach es *Na'arei* B'nei Yisrael" to "va'Yishlach es *Za'atutei* B'nei Yisrael" - so that Ptolomy should not ask in surprize whether Moshe could not find any better Sh'luchim that young boys.
2. ... "ve'El *Atzilei* B'nei Yisrael Lo Shalach Yadav" to "ve'El *Za'atutei* B'nei Yisrael Lo Shalach Yadav" - because that is the Lashon that they used in the previous question.
(c) Instead of ...
1. ... "Lo *Chamor* Echad Meihem Nasa'si" - they wrote "Lo *Chemed* (any precious object) Echad Meihem Nasa'si".
2. ... "Asher Chalak Hashem Elokim *Osam* le'Chol ha'Amim" - "Asher Chalak Hashem Elokim *Osam le'Ha'ir* le'Chol ha'Amim".
3. ... "va'Yeilech va'Ya'avod Elohim Acheirim Asher Lo *Tzivisi*" - "va'Yeilech va'Ya'avod Elohim Acheirim Asher Lo *Tzivisi le'Ovdam*".
(d) They found it necessary to change "es ha'Arneves" to "es Tze'iras ha'Raglayim" - because Arneves was the name of Ptolomy's wife, and he would have been insulted to find her name among the Tamei animals (Agados Maharsha).



(a) Rebbi Yochanan rules like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in our Mishnah - who learns that the Torah may be written in Greek over and above all other foreign languages from the Pasuk in No'ach "Yaft Elokim le'Yefes ve'Yishkon be'Oholei Shem" (meaning that the things of Yefes will dwell in the tents [of Torah] of Shem.

(b) He know that the Torah was referring specifically to (the language of) Yavan, and not to (some specialty of) one of the other sons of Yefes (Gomer or Magog) - because the Lashon "Yefes" means beauty, and the most beautiful aspect of Yefes was the Greek language.

(a) The only difference between a Kohen Mashu'ach be'Shemen ha'Mishchah (a Kohen Gadol who was inaugurated with the anointing oil) and a Merubeh Begadim (one who was inaugurated by wearing the eight garments of the Kohen Gadol) - is the bull that a Kohen Gadol has to bring for all the Mitzvos (if he issued a ruling permitting something that the Torah forbids with an Isur Kareis, and went on to practice his own ruling; a Kohen Mashu'ach brings it, a Kohen Merubeh Begadim does not - because the Torah writes in va'Yikra "Im ha'Kohen ha'*Mashi'ach* Yecheta ... ").

(b) If the latter was not anointed with the anointing oil - it was because he lived in the period of the *second* Beis Hamikdash, when the jar of anointing oil was not available (because it had been hidden by Yoshiyah towards the end of the *first*).

(c) We infer from our Mishnah - that a Kohen Merubeh Begadim may bring the bull (*his* bull, which he brings together with K'lal Yisrael's goat) on Yom Kipur, and the Asiris ha'Eifah (the Minchah consisting of a tenth of an Eifah which the Kohen Gadol brought daily) just like a Kohen Mashu'ach be'Shemen ha'Mishchah.

1. A 'Kohen Meshamesh' - is a Kohen Gadol who became Tamei and was re-placed by the deputy Kohen until he became Tahor - after he became Tahor.
2. A 'Kohen she'Avar' - is the Kohen who re-placed him and then had to stand down when the Kohen Gadol returned.
(b) Neither of them may allow their hair to grow long or tear their clothes for a dead relative, and both are obligated to marry a virgin of under twelve and a half (should they not be married). They are also forbidden - to marry a widow and both continue to perform the Avodah even when they are Onenim (the day that one of their close relations dies).

(c) A Kohen she'Avar cannot bring the bull of a Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur or the daily Asiris ha'Eifah.

(a) We inferred from our Mishnah that a Kohen Merubeh Begadim may bring the bull on Yom Kipur and the daily Asiris ha'Eifah, just like a Kohen Mashu'ach be'Shemen ha'Mishchah. The author of our Mishnah is the Chachamim of Rebbi Meir - because, according to Rebbi Meir, a Merubeh Begadim too, brings the bull for all the Mitzvos. He learns this from the extra 'Hey' in Im ha'Kohen *ha*'Mashi'ach".

(b) The author of the *Seifa* of our Mishnah however (which gives a Kohen she'Avar the same Din as a Kohen Meshamesh), appears to be Rebbi Meir. It is - Rebbi Yossi who argues with Rebbi Meir, and who holds that a Kohen she'Avar who stands down does not perform the Avodah at all, neither like a Kohen Gadol nor even like a Kohen Hedyot.

(c) According to Rebbi Yossi, a Kohen she'Avar does not ...

1. ... retain the Din of a Kohen Gadol - because we are afraid that this will lead to enmity between him and the Kohen Gadol.
2. ... even return to his previous status of Kohen Hedyot - because of the principle 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh ve'Lo Moridin'.
(d) Rav Chisda says 'Reisha Rabbanan, Seifa Rebbi Meir'. Rav Yosef explains that the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi who happens to hold like the Chachamim in the Reisha and like Rebbi Meir in the Seifa.
(a) A Bamah Gedolah was the one large Bamah on which the Korbenos Tzibur were brought when there was no Beis Hamikdash and no Mishkan; whereas a Bamah Ketanah was a private Bamah which anyone was permitted to build to bring on it Korbenos Yachid.

(b) The author of our Mishnah is Rebbi Shimon - who holds that one may bring on a Bamah Gedolah all Korbenos Tzibur that *have* a fixed time (like Pesachim), but not Korbanos that do *not*.

(c) The Rabbanan hold that whatever they brought on the Mizbe'ach in the desert, could be brought on the Bamah Gedolah, even Chata'os Tzibur (that have no fixed time), such as the Par He'elam Davar shel Tzibur and the goats of Avodah-Zarah.

(a) The only difference between Mishkan Shiloh and Yerushalayim ...
1. ... at the time when they both stood - was that, in the former, they were permitted to eat Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheini at any point from they could see it; whereas in Yerushalayim these could only be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim.
2. ... after they were both destroyed - was that, after the fall of the former, they were permitted to bring on Bamos once again until the Beis Hamikdash was built, but not after the destruction of the latter.
(b) We learn this latter distinction from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Ki Lo Ba'sem Ad Atah El ha'Menuchah ve'El ha'Nachalah" - because had Bamos been forbidden already from the time of the Mishkan, then the Torah should have written "Ki Lo Ba'sem Ad Atah El ha'Menuchah" and stopped.
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