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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Megilah 6

MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) Rebbi Yochanan claimed that when he was young, he made a statement which the sages of the time condoned. In his opinion, they called ...
  1. ... Teverya, 'Chamas' - because of Chamei (the hot-springs of) Teverya.
  2. ... Tzipori, 'Rakas' - because it was high-up on a mountain like 'Raksa de'Nahara' (a river-bank).
  3. ... Ginusar, 'Kineres' - because its fruit is as sweet as a Kinor (the tone of a harp).
(b) Rava refuted Rebbi Yochanan's theory outright - because there is nobody who holds that Rakas is not Teverya.

(c) When a Talmid-Chacham would die in Bavel, they would eulogize him in Teverya (which was then both a main center of Torah-learning and a major burial-site) with the words 'He was great in Sheishach and he had a good name in Rakas'. And when the coffin would arrive in Teverya, they would speak of 'Ohavei Seridim' (those who love Jews or Talmidei-Chachamim) going to greet the 'Harugei Omek'.

  1. ... 'Sheishach' - was Bavel (In the Gematriyah of 'Atbash', 'Sheishach' is the equivalent of 'Bavel').
  2. ... 'Rakas' - is Teverya.
  3. ... 'Omek' - is Bavel, too.
(d) When Rebbi Zeira died, they said in his Hesped (eulogy) 'Eretz Shinar Harah, Eretz Tzvi Gidlah Shashu'eha' - which teaches us that Rebbi Zeira moved from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael.
(a) So Rava rearranges the list. Chamas refers to the hot-springs of G'rar. They call Teverya, 'Rakas' - because even the 'Reikanin' she'Bah' (those of its inhabitants who were the most empty of Mitzvos) were full of Mitzvos like pomegranates.

(b) Others say that its real name was Rakas. *One* possible reason that they called it 'Teverya' is because it is situated in the middle of the land (from the word 'Tabur' - navel); the *other* - because 'Tovah Re'iyasah' (it was pleasant to look at, because of its many gardens and orchards).

(c) They called Kitron 'Tzipori' - because, like a Tzipor (a bird) it was situated on top of a mountain.

(d) Based on the fact that Kitron belonged to Zevulun and that Zevulun complained to Hashem about their territory, we query whether it really *was* Tzipori. Zevulun's complained - that whereas their brother Naftali received fields and vineyards, they received only hills and mountains.

(a) Hashem in reply, pointed out to Zevulun - that they had the Chilazon (fish), tunny (fish) and white glass (the thrust of Hashem's consolation seems to have been that they had the Chilazon).

(b) When ...

1. ... Zevulun asked Hashem 'Mi Modi'eini al Zos' - they meant 'Who will inform them if strangers fish in their waters and walk off with the Chilazon without paying their fishing dues?
2. ... Hashem replied "Sham Yizbechu Zivchei Tzedek" - He meant that, just as He rejects theft in the realm of Korbanos, so too, will He reject theft with regard to this issue; anyone who steals the Chilazon fish without paying their dues, will not manufacture it successfully.
(c) The entire area of 'Eretz Zavas Chalav u'D'vash' of the whole of Eretz Yisrael was twenty-two Parsah by six Parsah. Of that - sixteen by sixteen Mil was situated in Tzipori (an area of 256 Mil sq. - more than one eighth of the total of 2112 Mil sq. [twenty-two by six Parsah] of the whole of Eretz Yisrael). In that case, if Kitron was really Tzipori, why did Zevulun complain (seeing as they received way above the average)?

(d) We prove from the Pasuk "ve'Naftali al Meromei Sadeh" - that (in spite of the 'Zavas Chalav u'D'vash') Zevulun wanted fields(and not mountains).

(a) The Navi Tzefanyah writes "ve'Ekron Tei'aker". Another name for Ekron - is Caesaria (Note: That there was more than one Caesaria).

(b) Ekron and Achidas Migdal Shir (or Tzor) - are one and the same. Originally, it was called Ekron, and it caused Yisrael much trouble in the time of the Chashmona'im. When the latter overcame them, they changed its name to Achidas Migdal Shir (or Tzor).

(c) Tzor was the capital of Edom. According to the Navi Zecharyah ...

  1. ... the various places of idol-worship there - will be destroyed.
  2. ... the Shuls and Batei Medrash - will be dedicated to the service of Hashem.
  3. ... the leaders of Yisrael will one day teach Torah in the 'theatres' and 'circuses' (meeting-places).
(d) Another name for Leshem (of Dan) - is Pamayas (Bani'as).
(a) Caesaria was a Metropolis of kings. Some say they reared kings there. Others say - they picked the kings from its inhabitants.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Imal'ah ha'Charavah" - that Caesaria and Yerushalayim can never enjoy the same status simultaneously. When one of them is up, the other is down (in fact, one rises at the expense of the other).

(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak learns it - from the Pasuk in Toldos "u'Le'om mi'Le'om Ye'ematz".

(d) Yitzchak asked Hashem to favor Eisav, since even a Rasha, must have some good in him. He eventually admitted however, that Eisav was not worthy of seeing G-d's greatness - when Hashem informed him that he would destroy Eretz Yisrael.

(a) Ya'akov seemed to know Eisav's true character better than his father. When he implored Hashem "Al Titein Hashem Ma'avayei Rasha, Zemamo Al Tafek ... !" ...
1. ... he meant - that Hashem should not remove the metal nose-ring (that keeps a wild camel under control).
2. ... he was referring - to Germamya of Edom (Germany).
(b) There were three hundred and sixty five crown-makers in Germamya of Edom - and the same number of dukes in Edom.

(c) The relationship between them - was not very friendly, because each day they would fight with each other, and the former would kill one of the latter and try to appoint a king (it is unclear as to which one of them this applies).




(a) Rebbi Yitzchak says that if someone says ...
  1. ... 'I toiled but did not succeed' - do not believe him.
  2. ... 'I did not toil but succeeded' - do not believe him either.
(b) He is believed - if he says that he toiled and succeeded.

(c) The above does not apply to success or failure in business - because that depends entirely on the Divine assistance that one receives (and not on the amount of personal effort.

(d) Neither does it apply to learning Torah - when it is a matter of remembering what one has learned (as opposed to understanding it) which likewise depends on Divine assistance.

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Al Tischar ba'Merei'im" - that one is ill-advised to start up with a Rasha who is currently successful.
2. ... "Yachilu Derachav be'Chol Eis" - that moreover, he will continue to succeed.
3. ... "Marom Mishpatecha Minegdo" - that he will also win his case against you in the Heavenly court.
4. ... "Kol Tzorerav Yafi'ach Bahem" - that he will defeat his enemies with ease.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai learns from the Pasuk "Ozvei Torah Yehalelu Rasha, ve'Shomrei Torah Yisgaru Bam" - that a Tzadik should start up with the Rasha (which seems to contradict Rav Yitzchak's statement).

(c) Rebbi Dusta'i bar Masun in a Beraisa (who appears to have an independent opinion in the matter) explains the Pasuk "Al Tischar ba'Merei'im" to mean - that one should not compete with a Rasha or be jealous of him (in this way, it will not clash with the Pasuk "Ozvei Torah ... ")..

(d) Initially, we answer the Kashya on Rebbi Yitzchak by differentiating between personal issues (where one is well-advised not to start with a Rasha) and spiritual ones (rebuking him), which a Tzadik may do with impunity. There are however, two possible ways of resolving the contradictions by explaining both Pesukim with regard to starting with a Rasha in personal matters - either by establishing the Pasuk which warns against it by an incomplete Tzadik, and the Pasuk which permits it by a perfect Tzadik; or by restricting the former Pasuk to a Rasha who is enjoying current success, and establishing the latter, by one who is not (in which case, even an incomplete Tzadik may start up with him).

(a) Ula says that Italy of the Greek Empire was the equivalent of the large city of Rome.
  1. It was - three hundred by three hundred Parsah.
  2. It contained three hundred and sixty five market-places.
  3. The bird-market (the smallest of all the markets) was sixteen Mil by sixteen Mil.
(b) The Emperor would dine in one of the market-places every day. In order to receive a prize from the Emperor one either had to have been born there or to live there.

(c) The purpose of the five hundred windows in the three thousand bath-houses - was to let out the smoke.

(d) The sea blocked one side of Rome, mountains and hills, another. The third side was blocked - by an iron wall, and the fourth, by small stones.

(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the only two things that one will not be Yotze if one already performed them in Adar Rishon and the Chachamim then declare a leap-year - are reading the Megilah and Matanos la'Evyonim.

(b) We infer from our Mishnah that Adar Rishon and Adar Sheini have the same status - as regards Leining the four Parshiyos.

(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa says that all Mitzvos that apply in Adar Sheini, apply in Adar Rishon, except for that of reading the Megilah. He argues with Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who says in the name of Rebbi Yossi, that someone who read the Megilah in Adar Rishon must read it again in Adar Sheini) - with regard to the four Parshiyos, which need *not* be re-read in Adar Sheini if it was read in Adar Rishon according to him, but which *must* be re-read, according to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel.

(a) It is obvious that the author of our Mishnah cannot be Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi (in the previous Beraisa), who says that one does not need to read the Megilah again in Adar Sheini. Neither does it appear to be ...
1. ... the Tana Kama - who requires the Megilah that was read in Adar Rishon to be re-read in Adar Sheini, but not it seems, the Mitzvah of Matanos la'Evyonim (which can apparently be performed in either Adar)?
2. ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - who includes the four Parshiyos in the things that can only be performed in Adar Sheini.
(b) We reconcile our Mishnah with the Tana Kama of the Beraisa currently under discussion - by pointing out that Matanos la'Evyonim and reading the Megilah have the same Din (as we explained earlier). Consequently, having informed us that the Megilah must be read in Adar Sheini, it is not necessary to mention Matanos la'Evyonim.

(c) We reconcile our Mishnah with Raban Shimon ben Gamliel by amending the wording in our Mishnah to read 'Ein Bein *Arba'ah-Asar* she'be'Adar Rishon le'Arba'ah-Asar she'be'Adar Sheini Ela Mikra Megilah u'Matanos' - to preclude the prohibition of Hesped and Ta'anis, which apply in Adar Rishon as well as in Adar Sheini.

(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Avin Amar Rebbi Yochanan rules - like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel.

(a) Both Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi (who holds that the Megilah is read in Adar Rishon) and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who says that it is read in Adar Sheini) learn their respective opinions from the Pasuk in Esther "be'Chol Shanah ve'Shanah".
1. Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi explains this to mean - like every year, the Adar which follows Sh'vat.
2. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel explains - like every year, the Adar which is closest to Nisan.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi declines to learn like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, because his reason is based on the principle - 'Ein Ma'avirin al ha'Mitzvos'.

(c) According to Rav Tavi, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that the Sevara of 'Mismach Ge'ulah li'Ge'ulah' takes precedence over the principle of 'Ein Ma'avirin al ha'Mitzvos. This means - that logically, we place one Ge'ulah (that of Purim) next to another (that of the Exodus from Egypt).

(d) Rebbi Elazar gives the source for Raban Shimon ben Gamliel as the Pasuk - "le'Kayeim es Igeres ha'Purim ha'Zos *ha'Sheinis*" (meaning in the second Adar).

(a) Having written "ha'Sheinis" (according to Rebbi Elazar), the Pasuk nevertheless needed to add "be'Chol Shanah ve'Shanah" - because we would otherwise have explained "ha'Sheinis" to mean that in a leap year, one reads the Megilah twice.

(b) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi (in whose opinion one reads the Megilah in Adar Rishon) explains the Pasuk "ha'Sheinis" like Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah, who says - that first they fixed Purim in Shushan, and then in the rest of the world.

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