ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Megilah 6
MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan claimed that when he was young, he made a statement which
the sages of the time condoned. In his opinion, they called ...
(b) Rava refuted Rebbi Yochanan's theory outright - because there is nobody
who holds that Rakas is not Teverya.
- ... Teverya, 'Chamas' - because of Chamei (the hot-springs of) Teverya.
- ... Tzipori, 'Rakas' - because it was high-up on a mountain like 'Raksa de'Nahara' (a river-bank).
- ... Ginusar, 'Kineres' - because its fruit is as sweet as a Kinor (the tone of a harp).
(c) When a Talmid-Chacham would die in Bavel, they would eulogize him in
Teverya (which was then both a main center of Torah-learning and a major
burial-site) with the words 'He was great in Sheishach and he had a good name
in Rakas'. And when the coffin would arrive in Teverya, they would speak of
'Ohavei Seridim' (those who love Jews or Talmidei-Chachamim) going to greet
the 'Harugei Omek'.
(d) When Rebbi Zeira died, they said in his Hesped (eulogy) 'Eretz Shinar
Harah, Eretz Tzvi Gidlah Shashu'eha' - which teaches us that Rebbi Zeira
moved from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael.
- ... 'Sheishach' - was Bavel (In the Gematriyah of 'Atbash', 'Sheishach' is the equivalent of 'Bavel').
- ... 'Rakas' - is Teverya.
- ... 'Omek' - is Bavel, too.
(a) So Rava rearranges the list. Chamas refers to the hot-springs of G'rar.
They call Teverya, 'Rakas' - because even the 'Reikanin' she'Bah' (those of
its inhabitants who were the most empty of Mitzvos) were full of Mitzvos like
(b) Others say that its real name was Rakas. *One* possible reason that they
called it 'Teverya' is because it is situated in the middle of the land (from
the word 'Tabur' - navel); the *other* - because 'Tovah Re'iyasah' (it was
pleasant to look at, because of its many gardens and orchards).
(c) They called Kitron 'Tzipori' - because, like a Tzipor (a bird) it was
situated on top of a mountain.
(d) Based on the fact that Kitron belonged to Zevulun and that Zevulun
complained to Hashem about their territory, we query whether it really *was*
Tzipori. Zevulun's complained - that whereas their brother Naftali received
fields and vineyards, they received only hills and mountains.
(a) Hashem in reply, pointed out to Zevulun - that they had the Chilazon
(fish), tunny (fish) and white glass (the thrust of Hashem's consolation
seems to have been that they had the Chilazon).
(b) When ...
1. ... Zevulun asked Hashem 'Mi Modi'eini al Zos' - they meant 'Who will
inform them if strangers fish in their waters and walk off with the Chilazon
without paying their fishing dues?
(c) The entire area of 'Eretz Zavas Chalav u'D'vash' of the whole of Eretz
Yisrael was twenty-two Parsah by six Parsah. Of that - sixteen by sixteen Mil
was situated in Tzipori (an area of 256 Mil sq. - more than one eighth of the
total of 2112 Mil sq. [twenty-two by six Parsah] of the whole of Eretz
Yisrael). In that case, if Kitron was really Tzipori, why did Zevulun
complain (seeing as they received way above the average)?
2. ... Hashem replied "Sham Yizbechu Zivchei Tzedek" - He meant that, just as
He rejects theft in the realm of Korbanos, so too, will He reject theft with
regard to this issue; anyone who steals the Chilazon fish without paying
their dues, will not manufacture it successfully.
(d) We prove from the Pasuk "ve'Naftali al Meromei Sadeh" - that (in spite of
the 'Zavas Chalav u'D'vash') Zevulun wanted fields(and not mountains).
(a) The Navi Tzefanyah writes "ve'Ekron Tei'aker". Another name for Ekron -
is Caesaria (Note: That there was more than one Caesaria).
(b) Ekron and Achidas Migdal Shir (or Tzor) - are one and the same.
Originally, it was called Ekron, and it caused Yisrael much trouble in the
time of the Chashmona'im. When the latter overcame them, they changed its
name to Achidas Migdal Shir (or Tzor).
(c) Tzor was the capital of Edom. According to the Navi Zecharyah ...
(d) Another name for Leshem (of Dan) - is Pamayas (Bani'as).
- ... the various places of idol-worship there - will be destroyed.
- ... the Shuls and Batei Medrash - will be dedicated to the service of Hashem.
- ... the leaders of Yisrael will one day teach Torah in the 'theatres' and 'circuses' (meeting-places).
(a) Caesaria was a Metropolis of kings. Some say they reared kings there.
Others say - they picked the kings from its inhabitants.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Imal'ah ha'Charavah" - that Caesaria
and Yerushalayim can never enjoy the same status simultaneously. When one of
them is up, the other is down (in fact, one rises at the expense of the
(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak learns it - from the Pasuk in Toldos "u'Le'om
(d) Yitzchak asked Hashem to favor Eisav, since even a Rasha, must have some
good in him. He eventually admitted however, that Eisav was not worthy of
seeing G-d's greatness - when Hashem informed him that he would destroy Eretz
(a) Ya'akov seemed to know Eisav's true character better than his father.
When he implored Hashem "Al Titein Hashem Ma'avayei Rasha, Zemamo Al Tafek
... !" ...
1. ... he meant - that Hashem should not remove the metal nose-ring (that
keeps a wild camel under control).
(b) There were three hundred and sixty five crown-makers in Germamya of Edom
- and the same number of dukes in Edom.
2. ... he was referring - to Germamya of Edom (Germany).
(c) The relationship between them - was not very friendly, because each day
they would fight with each other, and the former would kill one of the latter
and try to appoint a king (it is unclear as to which one of them this
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak says that if someone says ...
(b) He is believed - if he says that he toiled and succeeded.
- ... 'I toiled but did not succeed' - do not believe him.
- ... 'I did not toil but succeeded' - do not believe him either.
(c) The above does not apply to success or failure in business - because that
depends entirely on the Divine assistance that one receives (and not on the
amount of personal effort.
(d) Neither does it apply to learning Torah - when it is a matter of
remembering what one has learned (as opposed to understanding it) which
likewise depends on Divine assistance.
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Al Tischar ba'Merei'im" - that one is ill-advised to start up with a
Rasha who is currently successful.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai learns from the Pasuk
"Ozvei Torah Yehalelu Rasha, ve'Shomrei Torah Yisgaru Bam" - that a Tzadik
should start up with the Rasha (which seems to contradict Rav Yitzchak's
2. ... "Yachilu Derachav be'Chol Eis" - that moreover, he will continue to
3. ... "Marom Mishpatecha Minegdo" - that he will also win his case against
you in the Heavenly court.
4. ... "Kol Tzorerav Yafi'ach Bahem" - that he will defeat his enemies with
(c) Rebbi Dusta'i bar Masun in a Beraisa (who appears to have an independent
opinion in the matter) explains the Pasuk "Al Tischar ba'Merei'im" to mean -
that one should not compete with a Rasha or be jealous of him (in this way,
it will not clash with the Pasuk "Ozvei Torah ... ")..
(d) Initially, we answer the Kashya on Rebbi Yitzchak by differentiating
between personal issues (where one is well-advised not to start with a Rasha)
and spiritual ones (rebuking him), which a Tzadik may do with impunity. There
are however, two possible ways of resolving the contradictions by explaining
both Pesukim with regard to starting with a Rasha in personal matters -
either by establishing the Pasuk which warns against it by an incomplete
Tzadik, and the Pasuk which permits it by a perfect Tzadik; or by restricting
the former Pasuk to a Rasha who is enjoying current success, and establishing
the latter, by one who is not (in which case, even an incomplete Tzadik may
start up with him).
(a) Ula says that Italy of the Greek Empire was the equivalent of the large
city of Rome.
(b) The Emperor would dine in one of the market-places every day. In order
to receive a prize from the Emperor one either had to have been born there or
to live there.
- It was - three hundred by three hundred Parsah.
- It contained three hundred and sixty five market-places.
- The bird-market (the smallest of all the markets) was sixteen Mil by sixteen Mil.
(c) The purpose of the five hundred windows in the three thousand bath-houses
- was to let out the smoke.
(d) The sea blocked one side of Rome, mountains and hills, another. The third
side was blocked - by an iron wall, and the fourth, by small stones.
(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the only two things that one will
not be Yotze if one already performed them in Adar Rishon and the Chachamim
then declare a leap-year - are reading the Megilah and Matanos la'Evyonim.
(b) We infer from our Mishnah that Adar Rishon and Adar Sheini have the same
status - as regards Leining the four Parshiyos.
(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa says that all Mitzvos that apply in Adar
Sheini, apply in Adar Rishon, except for that of reading the Megilah. He
argues with Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who says in the name of Rebbi Yossi,
that someone who read the Megilah in Adar Rishon must read it again in Adar
Sheini) - with regard to the four Parshiyos, which need *not* be re-read in
Adar Sheini if it was read in Adar Rishon according to him, but which *must*
be re-read, according to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel.
(a) It is obvious that the author of our Mishnah cannot be Rebbi Eliezer
b'Rebbi Yossi (in the previous Beraisa), who says that one does not need to
read the Megilah again in Adar Sheini. Neither does it appear to be ...
1. ... the Tana Kama - who requires the Megilah that was read in Adar Rishon
to be re-read in Adar Sheini, but not it seems, the Mitzvah of Matanos
la'Evyonim (which can apparently be performed in either Adar)?
(b) We reconcile our Mishnah with the Tana Kama of the Beraisa currently
under discussion - by pointing out that Matanos la'Evyonim and reading the
Megilah have the same Din (as we explained earlier). Consequently, having
informed us that the Megilah must be read in Adar Sheini, it is not necessary
to mention Matanos la'Evyonim.
2. ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - who includes the four Parshiyos in the
things that can only be performed in Adar Sheini.
(c) We reconcile our Mishnah with Raban Shimon ben Gamliel by amending the
wording in our Mishnah to read 'Ein Bein *Arba'ah-Asar* she'be'Adar Rishon
le'Arba'ah-Asar she'be'Adar Sheini Ela Mikra Megilah u'Matanos' - to preclude
the prohibition of Hesped and Ta'anis, which apply in Adar Rishon as well as
in Adar Sheini.
(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Avin Amar Rebbi Yochanan rules - like Raban Shimon ben
(a) Both Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi (who holds that the Megilah is read in
Adar Rishon) and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who says that it is read in Adar
Sheini) learn their respective opinions from the Pasuk in Esther "be'Chol
1. Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi explains this to mean - like every year, the
Adar which follows Sh'vat.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi declines to learn like Raban Shimon ben
Gamliel, because his reason is based on the principle - 'Ein Ma'avirin al
2. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel explains - like every year, the Adar which is
closest to Nisan.
(c) According to Rav Tavi, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that the Sevara of
'Mismach Ge'ulah li'Ge'ulah' takes precedence over the principle of 'Ein
Ma'avirin al ha'Mitzvos. This means - that logically, we place one Ge'ulah
(that of Purim) next to another (that of the Exodus from Egypt).
(d) Rebbi Elazar gives the source for Raban Shimon ben Gamliel as the Pasuk -
"le'Kayeim es Igeres ha'Purim ha'Zos *ha'Sheinis*" (meaning in the second
(a) Having written "ha'Sheinis" (according to Rebbi Elazar), the Pasuk
nevertheless needed to add "be'Chol Shanah ve'Shanah" - because we would
otherwise have explained "ha'Sheinis" to mean that in a leap year, one reads
the Megilah twice.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Yossi (in whose opinion one reads the Megilah in
Adar Rishon) explains the Pasuk "ha'Sheinis" like Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah, who
says - that first they fixed Purim in Shushan, and then in the rest of the