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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 23

MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.


(a) (Mishnah): 5 read on Yom Tov, 6 on Yom Kipur.
(b) Question: Our Mishnah is unlike both of the coming Tanaim!
(c) (Beraisa): R. Yishmael: 5 read on Yom Tov, 6 on Yom Kipur, and 7 on Shabbos; we may not detract nor add to these;
(d) R. Akiva: 7 read on Yom Kipur, and 6 on Shabbos.
1. The Mishnah allows adding readers, unlike R. Yishmael; the number of readers is unlike R. Akiva!
(e) Answer (Rava): The Mishnah is like the following Tana:
(f) (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): 5 read on Yom Tov, 6 on Yom Kipur, 7 on Shabbos; we may add but not detract from these.
1. There is a disagreement on the opinion of R. Yishmael.
(g) (Beraisa): On Yom Tov we come late to shul and leave early; on Yom Kipur we come early and leave late; on Shabbos, we come early and leave early.
(h) Suggestion: This is like R. Akiva, who says that the most people read on Yom Kipur.
(i) Rejection: It can be like R. Yishmael - additional prayers of Yom Kipur elongate the service.
(a) Question: What do the 3, 5 and 7 readers (on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos afternoon/ Yom Tov/ Shabbos) correspond to?
(b) Conflicting answers were given by R. Yitzchak Bar Nachmani and R. Shimon Ben Pazi.
(c) Answer#1: To the numbers of words in the 3 verses of Birkas Kohanim.
(d) Answer#2: To the 3 gatekeepers, 5 of those that receive the king, and the 7 that receive him.
1. Rav Yosef taught as the 1st answer. Abaye: why didn't you teach this earlier?
2. Rav Yosef - I didn't realize that you needed to know - did you ever ask me anything which I didn't answer?
(e) Question (Yakov Minah): What do the 6 of Yom Kipur correspond to?
(f) Answer (Rav Yehuda): To the 6 that stood to the right of Ezra, and to his left.
(g) Question: The verse lists 7 to his left!
(h) Answer: Zacharyah is Meshulam; he is called Meshulam because his deeds Mishlam (are pure).
(a) (Beraisa): All count towards the 7, even children and women, but a woman should not read in the congregation, because of their honor.
(b) Question: Does Maftir count as part of the 7?
(c) Rav Huna and Rav Yirmiya Bar Ava argued; one said yes, one said no.
1. The opinion that says yes - for he reads!
2. The opinion that says no - as Ula said, the Maftir only reads in the Torah to show honor to the Torah (above the prophets); therefore, he does not count as part of the 7.
(d) Question (Beraisa): The Maftir must read at least 21 verses in the prophet, corresponding to the 7 that read in the Torah. If the Maftir is not among the 7, 8 read, 24 verses should be required!
(e) Answer: Since the Maftir reads in Torah only to honor the Torah, we need not read corresponding to him.

(f) Question (Rava): We read a Haftorah "Oloseichem", of less than 21 verses!
(g) Answer: That is different, since the subject is completed.
(h) Question: When the subject is not completed, 21 are required?
1. Many times, Rav Shmuel Bar Aba read in front of R. Yochanan, and was told to stop after 10 verses!
(i) Answer: Where there is a translator is different.
1. (Rav Tachlifa Bar Shmuel): 21 only applies where there is no translator; where there is one, less are read.
(a) (Mishnah): The following all require 10 men:
1. Pores Al Shma (To say Kaddish, Borechu, and the first blessing before Krias Shma);
2. The Chazan's repetition of the 18 blessings of prayer;
3. Birkas Kohanim;
4. Reading the Torah (with blessings before and after);
5. Reading from the prophets;
6. Interruptions during a funeral procession;
7. The blessing to console mourners;
8. A reception line to greet mourners;
9. Blessing of a Chasan;
10. 'Zimun' with Hashem's name;
11. The redemption of land, or people.
i. For this last case, 1 of the 10 must be a Kohen.
(b) (Gemara - R. Chiya Bar Aba): We learn from "I will be sanctified b'Soch (amidst) Bnei Yisrael" that matters of sanctity (the first 5 subjects in the Mishnah) require 10.
(c) Question: How do we learn this?
(d) Answer: A Gezerah Shaveh, Toch-Toch; another verse says, "mi'Toch (from) this congregation". Another Gezerah Shaveh teaches that the verse refers to the evil members of the congregation (of spies), of which there were 10.
(e) Interruptions during a funeral procession - since we say 'stop, dear ones' - it is improper to use this language for less than 10.
(f) The blessing of mourners is what is said in the street.
1. (R. Yitzchak): Mourners do not count as part of the 10. The Chasan does count towards the 10 needed for the blessing of Chasanim.
(g) Zimun with Hashem's name - it is not proper to say "Let us bless our G-d" with less than 10.
(h) (Shmuel): Evaluation of land is learned from the 10 times "Kohen" is written regarding redemption.
1. We apply the following principle: if a restriction is repeated, it comes to include (i.e. the last 9 need not be Kohanim).
2. Question: We should say that 5 (every alternate one) is a restriction! This question is unresolved.
(i) Question: What is the redemption of man - man cannot become Hekdesh!
(j) Answer (R. Avahu): He said, I pledge my value to Hekdesh, so he must be evaluated.
1. (Beraisa): One who pledges his value to Hekdesh is evaluated as a slave.
2. Slaves are compared to land, therefore, 10 are needed.
(a) (Mishnah): One may not read less than 3 verses in the Torah; one does not read a 2nd verse until the translator translates the 1st verse.
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