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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 21

MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.


(a) Beheading the calf is Kosher all day - (d'Vei R. Yanai): We learn this from sacrifices, since both are called atonement.
(b) Purification of a leper - "On the day of his purification".
(c) (Mishnah): The whole night is Kosher for reaping the Omer - we count and reap at night; we bring it by day.
(d) Burning fats and limbs - "The whole night until the morning".
(e) (Mishnah): This is the rule: a daytime Mitzvah - this comes to include arranging and removing the pans of the Lechem ha'Panim, which may be done all day; this is like R. Yosi.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Even if the old bread was removed in the morning, and the new bread was not arranged until close to evening, it is not a problem.
2. As long as the Table is not empty overnight, it is considered "always" set.
(f) (Mishnah): Every nighttime Mitzvah - this comes to include eating the Pascal sacrifice, unlike R. Elazar Ben Azaryah.
1. (Beraisa -R. Elazar Ben Azaryah): A Gezerah Shaveh "On that night - On that night" teaches that the Pascal sacrifice may only be eaten until midnight.
**** Perek ha'Korei Es ha'Megilah ****


(a) (Mishnah): One may read the Megilah standing or sitting;
(b) Whether 1 or 2 read it, one is Yotzai;
(c) One blesses on it only where that is the custom;
(d) The number of people called to read from the Torah is as follows:
(e) Monday, Thursday, and Shabbos afternoon - exactly 3, no Haftorah;
(f) Rosh Chodesh, Chol ha'Moed - exactly 4, no Haftorah; the one who reads first and last blesses before and after;
(g) Yom Tov - at least 5, and a Haftorah;
(h) Yom Kipur - at least 6, and a Haftorah;
(i) Shabbos - at least 7, and a Haftorah; the one who reads first and last blesses before and after.
(j) (Gemara - Beraisa): But the Torah is only read standing!
(k) (R. Avahu): "Stand here with me" - had the Torah not written it, we could not say it - it was as if Hashem was standing with Moshe. From here we learn, the Rebbe should not sit on a bed and teach students sitting on the ground.
(l) (Beraisa): From the days of Moshe until R. Gamliel, Torah was learned standing; after R. Gamliel died, weakness came to the world, and people learned sitting.
1. (Mishnah): The honor of Torah ceased with the death of R. Gamliel.
(m) Question: It says, "I sat on the mountain"; and it says, "I stood on the mountain"!
1. Answer#1 (Rav): Moshe learned standing, and reviewed his learning sitting.
2. Answer#2 (R. Chanina): He neither sat nor stood - he was bent over.
3. Answer#3 (R. Yochanan): "Eishev" means 'I delayed', it does not mean that he sat.
4. Answer#4 (Rava): Soft matters he learned standing, harsh matters, sitting.


(a) (Beraisa): One person reads the Torah, and one translates. One person reads from the prophets, and 2 may translate.
(b) 10 people may read Hallel or the Megilah at the same time.
1. Question: Why are they different?
2. Answer: Since they are dear to people, they put their minds to it and can hear.
(c) (Mishnah): Where the custom is to bless, one blesses.
(d) (Abaye): this refers to the blessing after reading; before, it is a Mitzvah to bless.
1. (Rav Yehuda): On all Mitzvahs, one blesses before performing them.
(e) Question: What blessings are made?
(f) Answer: Rav Sheshes blessed 'Mem-Nun-Ches' (Al Mikra Megilah, she'Asah Nisim, she'Hecheyanu) before reading.
(g) After reading, we bless "Who wages our conflict, judges our case, takes our vengeance, .... and repays all our enemies, Baruch Ata Hashem, who pays up Yisrael from all their enemies.
(h) (Rava): We end, 'The Power that Saves'.
(i) (Rav Papa): We do not favor one over the other; we say both.
(j) (Mishnah): On Monday, Thursday and Shabbos afternoon 3 people read.
(k) Question: What do these 3 correspond to?
(l) Answer#1 (Rava): Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim.
(m) Question: Rav Simi taught, we do not read less than 10 verses - to what do they correspond?
(n) Answer#1 (R. Yehoshua Ben Levi): To 10 Batlanim (people that do not work and are always in Shul).
(o) Answer#2 (Rav Yosef): To the 10 utterances..
(p) Answer#3 (R. Levi): To the 10 Hilulin (praises) in Psalms.
(q) Answer#4 (R. Yochanan): To the 10 sayings of creation.
1. Question: It only says "And Hashem said" 9 times!
2. Answer: "b'Reishis" is also a saying.
(r) (Rava): Whichever of the 3 reads 4 verses is praiseworthy.
1. We see a preference for the first by the 3 boxes of coins used to buy public sacrifices.
2. (R. Yochanan): We see a preference for the middle by the branches of the Menorah, which all pointed to the middle branch.
3. There is a preference for the last because we rise in holiness, and do not descend.
4. Rav Papa praised one who was first and read 4 verses.
(s) (Mishnah): We may not detract nor increase from the number of people that read.
(t) (Beraisa): The first person blesses before reading, the last person, after reading.
(u) Today, everyone blesses before and after - we are afraid, lest a person enter or leave in the middle, and he will think that we do not bless before or after.
(a) (Mishnah): On Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed 4 people read.
(b) Question (Ula Bar Rav): How do we split the reading for Rosh Chodesh among the 4?
1. The first 8 verses are a Parsha (a segment of the Torah delineated by spaces).
2. We cannot have the first 2 people each read 3 verses - this would leave 2 verses in the Parsha, and we do not do this!
3. If each will read 4 - how will the last 2 read the last 7 verses?
i. The last 7 verses consist of a Parsha of 2 verses, and one of 5.
ii. The first (of the last 2) cannot read the Parsha of 2 and 1 verse from the next - we do not begin less than 3 verses of a Parsha!
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