(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

Ask A Question on the daf

Previous daf

Megilah 20


(a) Answer: Really, R. Yehuda permits L'chatchilah - but his teacher only permits B'diavad.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehuda in the name of R. Eliezer Ben Azaryah): One must read Krias Shma audibly to his ears, as it says, "Shma" - Mashmia (make heard);
2. R. Meir: "On your heart" - intention of the heart is what counts.
3. We may now defend the objector - R. Yehuda holds as his teacher (one is Yotzai B'diavad); R. Yehuda Brei d'R. Shimon Ben Pazi holds as R. Meir, he may read L'chatchilah.
(b) (Mishnah): R. Yehuda permits a child.
(c) (Beraisa - R. Yehuda): When I was a child, I read in front of R. Tarfon and other Sages!
(d) Chachamim: We may not bring a proof from what one remembers when he was a child.
(e) (Beraisa - Rebbi): As a child, I read in front of R. Yehuda;
(f) Chachamim: This is no proof, he is the lenient opinion!
1. Question: Why didn't they respond, we cannot bring a proof from childhood?
2. Answer: A 2nd rebuttal was given - they rejected his proof for both reasons.
(a) (Mishnah): The reading of the Megilah, circumcision, immersion, sprinkling (water sanctified by ashes of a red heifer), also the immersion of a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom should only be done after sunrise. If any of these was done after dawn, it is Kosher.
(b) (Gemara - Question): What is the source?
(c) Answer: "These days ...".
(d) Suggestion: Our Mishnah refutes R. Yehoshua Ben Levi, who said that we must read the Megilah at night as well!
(e) Answer: No, the Mishnah gives the law of the day reading.
(f) We learn that circumcision is by day from "On the 8th day".
(g) We learn sprinkling from "On the 7th day"; immersion is equated to sprinkling.
(h) Question: Why was it necessary to teach Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom (a woman who saw blood before she is fitting to see menstrual blood) separately from others that immerse?
(i) Answer: We would have thought it is like the first sighting of a Zav (a man who saw seminal emissions), which is compared to a Ba'al Keri (a man who had one emission).
1. They may immerse by day. A Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom cannot, since it says, "All the days of her flow, she will be as a Nidah".
2. If not taught separately, we would think that she could guard (in purity) the start of the coming night and immerse at night.

3. Since she must count (a clean day), and counting may only be done by day, she cannot immerse until day.
(j) (Mishnah): If any of these was done after dawn, it is Kosher.
(k) Opinion#1(Rava): We learn this from "Hashem called l'Or day - from when Me'ir (it is light).
(l) Question: If so, we should similarly learn that night begins when it starts to get dark - but we hold, night begins when the stars come out!
(m) Opinion#2 (R. Zeira): We learn from "We work ... from dawn until the stars come out"; also "We watched at night, and worked by day".
(n) Question: Why is the 2nd verse needed?
(o) Answer: We might have thought, they were working extra, even before the start of day.
(a) (Mishnah): The following may be done any time during the day: Reading the Megilah; reciting Hallel; blowing the shofar; taking the lulav; the Musaf prayer;
(b) The following sacrificial rituals: Musaf; confession over the bull; confession over Maaser; confession of Yom Kipur; Semichah (pressing on the animal's neck); slaughtering; waving; Hagashah (bringing close to the altar); Kemitzah (taking a handful); burning; Melikah (killing a bird by pinching its neck); receiving (the blood); sprinkling (blood); giving a Sotah (a woman suspected of adultery) to drink; beheading a calf (to atone for a murder); purification of a leper.
(c) The entire night is Kosher for: reaping the Omer and burning fats and limbs.
(d) Any daytime Mitzvah is Kosher all day; a nighttime Mitzvah is Kosher all night.
(e) (Gemara): We learn that the Megilah is read by day from "These days are remembered".
(f) Hallel is learned from "From the east (rising) of the sun until its setting".
1. Rav Yosef says from "This is the day that Hashem made".
(g) Taking the lulav - "You will take on the 1st day".
(h) Blowing the shofar - "A day of blowing".
(i) Musaf sacrifices - "The matter of each day on its day"; Chazal made the Musaf prayer like the sacrifice.
(j) Confession over a bull - is learned from a Gezerah Shaveh to atonement of Yom Kipur.
1. We learn atonement of Yom Kipur from "On this day to atone for you".
(k) Confession of Maaser - "This day Hashem commands you".
(l) Semichah - is equated to slaughtering; slaughtering is learned from "On the day of your slaughtering".
(m) Waving - "On the day of your waving".
(n) Hagashah - Is equated to waving.
(o) Melikah, Kemitzah, burning and sprinkling are all learned from "On the day he commanded the sons of Aharon".
(p) Giving a Sotah to drink - is learned from a Gezerah Shaveh to judgment.
Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,