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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 19

MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) 'Kankantom' is a paint used for shoes (and is invalid).
(b) 'Diftara' is a hide which has been salted and soaked, but not treated with gallnuts (it is invalid).
(c) 'Niyar' is herbs which were glued together.
(d) (Mishnah): It must be written Ashuris.
1. This is learned from "As their writing".
(e) (Mishnah): It must be written in a Sefer, in ink.
1. This is learned from a Gezerah Shaveh from Yirmiyahu.
(a) (Mishnah): An open city dweller who went to a walled city, or vice-versa: if he will return to his place, he reads as in his place; if not, he reads where he is;
(b) R. Meir: to fulfill the Mitzvah, one must read the entire Megilah.
(c) R. Yehuda: From "A Jewish man"
(d) R. Yosi: From "After these things"
(e) (Gemara - Rava): 'If he will return' - before dawn of the 14th; if not, he reads with them (where he is).
1. We learn this from the redundancy "the open Jews, that dwell in the open cities" - an open city dweller for one day is called an open city dweller.
2. By logic, we also say that a walled city dweller for one day is called a walled city dweller.
(f) (Rava): A villager that went to a city reads with them, whether or not he will return.
1. The reason is, he really should read with the city - Chachamim were lenient, because they supply food and water to the cities; if he is in the city, the leniency was not given.
(g) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): A walled city dweller that went to an open city in any case reads as his place.
1. Question: The Mishnah says, it depends if he will return!
2. Answer: Rather, we must correct the Beraisa to say, a villager that went... . This contradicts Rava!
(h) Answer: The Beraisa must be corrected in any case - correct it to say, he reads with them!
(a) (Beraisa -R. Shimon Bar Yochai): From "That night".
(b) (R. Yochanan): He and the Tana'im of the Mishnah all learned from the same verse - "All the power".
1. R. Meir said we must read it all - the power of Achashverosh.
2. R. Yehuda - from "a Jewish man" - the power of Mordechai.
3. R. Yosi - from "After these things" - the power of Haman.
4. R. Shimon Bar Yochai - from "that night" - the power of the miracle.
(c) (Rav Huna): They all learned from "What they saw on this ... and what happened to them".
1. We must read all of it - what Achashverosh saw, to use the vessels of the Temple; on this that we were not redeemed after 70 years; what happened to them - he killed Vashti.
2. From "a Jewish man" - what Mordechai saw, to provoke Haman; on this - he made himself an idolatry; and what happened to them - a miracle!
3. From "After these things" - what Haman saw, that he envied all the Jews; on this - that Mordechai wouldn't bow to him; what happened to them - he and his sons were hung.
4. From "that night" - what Achashverosh saw to bring the chronicles; on this - that Esther invited Haman with him; what happened to them - a miracle.
(d) (R. Chelbo): the law is, one must read the entire Megilah! And even the dissenting opinions agree that the entire Megilah must be written.
(e) (R. Chelbo): The Megilah is called a Sefer and a letter.
1. 'Sefer' teaches us that if it was sewn with flax, it is invalid.
2. 'Letter' teaches us that 3 stitches of a sinew suffice.
i. (Rav Nachman): The stitches must be evenly spaced.
(f) (Rav Yehuda): One who reads a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
1. (Rava): But if the Megilah was larger or smaller than the other parchments, there is no problem.
2. Rav Yehuda once rebuked Levi Bar Shmuel for reading in a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim.

(g) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): (Rav Yehuda): One who reads a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
1. He hit on his head - this only applies when a congregation reads.
(h) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): We have a tradition from Moshe, one should not entirely sew together the parchments of a Sefer Torah.
1. He hit on his head - one need only leave over so it should not tear.
(i) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): Had there been a crack in the cave where Moshe and Eliyahu were when Hashem's glory passed over, they could not have survived the light - "Man cannot see me and live".
(j) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): "As everything that Hashem spoke with you in the mountain" - Hashem showed Moshe all the expoundings of the Torah, the Mishnah, and what the Sages will add - namely, reading the Megilah.
(a) (Mishnah): All may read the Megilah, except for a deaf person, crazy person or child; R. Yehuda permits a child.
(b) (Gemara - Question): Who is the Tana of our Mishnah, that one who hears from a deaf person did not fulfill the Mitzvah?
(c) Answer (Rav Masneh): R. Yosi.
1. (Mishnah): One who reads Krias Shma inaudibly to his own ears was Yotzai (fulfilled the Mitzvah); R. Yosi says he was not Yotzai.
(d) Question: Perhaps our Mishnah is R. Yehuda, and the deaf person may not read L'chatchilah (to begin with), but B'diavad (if he did so), one is Yotzai!
(e) Answer#1: A deaf person is taught together with a crazy person and child, so we see that their law is the same - even B'diavad, one is not Yotzai.
(f) Question: Perhaps the laws are not the same!
(g) Answer#2: Since R. Yehuda taught the end of the Mishnah, he did not teach the beginning.
(h) Question: Perhaps the whole Mishnah is R. Yehuda!
(i) Answer: This cannot be - the beginning says a child may not read, the end says that he may!
(j) Objection: Perhaps the beginning talks of a child below the age of Chinuch (training in Mitzvahs), and the end talks of a child that has reached Chinuch!
(k) Question on the Objector: How can you say that R. Yehuda says that B'diavad, one is Yotzai if he read inaudibly?
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehuda Brei d'R. Shimon Ben Pazi): A deaf person that can speak but not hear may tithe L'chatchilah (even though he cannot hear his blessing)!
2. You cannot say he holds as R. Yehuda - R. Yehuda did not permit L'chatchilah! It is not as R. Yosi - he says, even B'diavad one is not Yotzai!
(l) Counter-question: You say that R. Yehuda permits L'chatchilah - but a Beraisa teaches, one should not bless after a meal in his heart; if he did, he was Yotzai!
1. This cannot be R. Yehuda - he permits L'chatchilah!
2. It cannot be R. Yosi - he says, even B'diavad, he is not Yotzai!
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