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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 17

MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) The Torah records Yishmael's years to reveal about Yakov's years.
1. When Yakov left home, "Esav went to Yishmael ... and took Basmas, Nevayos' sister as a wife" - Yishmael engaged her to Esav, and soon died, so Nevayos finalized the marriage.
2. Yishmael died at 137; Yitzchak was 14 years younger.
3. Yakov was born when Yitzchak was 60; thus, he was 63 when he left home.
(b) Yakov worked for Lavan for 14 years before Yosef was born.
(c) Yosef was 30 when he came before Paro.
(d) Question: Yakov came to Paro 9 years later, and said he was 130 - our calculation say that he was 116!
(e) Answer: He learned in seclusion by Ever for 14 years.
(f) (Beraisa): Yosef was separated from Yakov for 22 years, as a punishment for 22 years away from home.
(g) Question: Yakov was only by Lavan for 20 years!
(h) Answer: He tarried 2 years returning home.
(a) One does not fulfill the Mitzvah of reading the Megilah by reading it:
1. Out of order
2. By heart
3. In Aramaic translation, or any other language.
(b) One may read in La'az (a foreign language) to a Lo'ez (one who speaks La'az).
(c) The following did fulfill the Mitzvah:
1. A Lo'ez that heard Ashuris (Hebrew).
2. One who paused or dozed in the middle of reading.
(d) One who was writing, expounding or proofreading a Megilah only fulfilled the Mitzvah if he intended.
(e) One only fulfills the Mitzvah if the Megilah is written Ashuris, with ink, on parchment.
(a) Question: What is the source that the Megilah must be read in order?
(b) Answer (Rava): "As their writings and as their times" - just as their times (for reading) cannot be out of order, so the writing may not be out of order.
(c) Question: The verse is talking about making (A meal and Yom Tov), not about writing the Megilah!
(d) Retraction: Rather, he learns from "Are remembered and made", we equate the remembrance (writing the Megilah) with the making, which cannot be out of order.
(e) (Beraisa): Hallel, Krias Shma and prayer must also be read in order.
(f) Question: What is the source for Hallel?
1. Answer#1 (Rabah): "From the east (rising) of the sun until its setting (praised is Hashem's name)".
2. Answer#2 (Rav Yosef): "This is the day" (a day always passes in order).
3. Answer#3 (Rav Avya): "Hashem's name should be blessed" (the blessing should resemble the name, i.e. be in order).
4. Answer#4 (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): "From now and forever"
(g) Question: What is the source for Krias Shma?
(h) Answer (Beraisa): Rebbi says that Krias Shma may only be read in Hebrew; Chachamim permit all languages.

1. Rebbi learns from "They will be" - as they are.
2. Chachamim learn from "Hear" - in every language you can hear.
i. Rebbi uses the verse "Hear" to teach that one should read it audibly, so he can hear himself.
ii. Chachamim hold that one fulfills the Mitzvah even if he didn't read audibly.
3. Chachamim do not expound "They will be" as Rebbi - they say it teaches that one must read in order!
4. Rebbi learns from an extra letter Hei in "ha'Devarim" that one must read in order.
5. Chachamim say that "ha'Devarim" is grammatically proper; the "Hei" is not to be expounded.
6. Suggestion: Rebbi must say that the Torah was given to be read in all languages; if it was only given to be read in Hebrew, we would not need a special teaching by Krias Shma!
7. Rejection: This is no proof - we need a teaching, so we will not learn as Chachamim!
(a) Question: What is the source that prayer must be read in order?
(b) Answer#1 (Beraisa): Shimon ha'Kepuli ordered the 18 blessings in Yavne (when the Sanhedrin sat there).
(c) Answer#2 (R. Yochanan): 120 sages, included some prophets, enacted 18 blessings in order.
(d) (Beraisa): The order of the blessings is as follows, and for the coming reasons:
1. (Patriarchs) - "Give to Hashem, children of the mighty ones".
2. (Gevura (strength)): "Give to Hashem honor and strength".
3. (Holiness): "Give to Hashem ... the honor of holiness".
4. (Understanding): "The Holy one of Yakov ... and those of a straying spirit will have understanding".
5. (Repentance): "His heart will understand, and he will repent and be cured."
i. Question: If so, the blessing for healing should follow repentance!
ii. Answer: It says, "He will repent ... Hashem greatly forgives" (so forgiveness follows repentance).
6. (Forgiveness): Learned from the previous verse.
i. Question: Why does this outweigh the verse "he will repent and be cured"?
ii. Answer: A 3rd verse teaches "He forgives ... he cures and redeems", forgiveness precedes healing and redemption.
iii. Question: In any case, we have a contradiction of verses!
iv. Answer: "He will repent and be cured" refers to forgiveness, not healing sickness.
7. (Redemption) (Rava): The future redemption will be in the 7th year (of the Shmita cycle), so redemption was fixed as the 7th blessing.
i. Question: But it was taught, in the 7th year will be wars, and the next year the Mashiach from the house of David will come!
ii. Answer: The war is the start of the redemption.
8. (Healing) (R. Acha): Circumcision, which is on the 8th day, needs, healing, therefore it was fixed as the 8th blessing.
9. (Prosperity) (R. Aleksandri): This blessing opposes those that inflate the price of grain; the 9th Psalm speaks of breaking the arm of such people.
10. (Gathering of exiles): This follows prosperity, as it says, "Mountains of Yisrael, cast forth your branches and bear fruit, for my nation Yisrael, for they will come soon."
11. (Judgment): This follows gathering of exiles, as it says, "I will return my hand and return your judges"
12. (Deniers and intentional sinners): After the wicked are judged, both of these will pass from the world. (This blessing was added at Yavne, making the total 19).
13. (Tzadikim): When the sinners are finished, the tzadikim are elevated. Converts are included, because the Torah linked them.
14. (Yerushalayim): The tzadikim will be elevated in Yerushalayim.
15. (Kingship of Dovid): This follows the rebuilding of Yerushalayim.
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