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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 15


(a) The previous Beraisa listed 8 prophets. Some of them were fathers of prophets, but we do not find that they themselves prophesized.
(b) Question: What is the source that the fathers were also prophets?
(c) Answer: As Ula said - when a prophet father's name is mentioned, this shows that the father was also a prophet; if his father's name is not mentioned, this shows that the father was not a prophet.
1. If his city is mentioned, he was from that city; if his city is not mentioned, he was from Yerushalayim.
2. (Beraisa): When a man and his ancestors are mentioned, if the deeds of one are praised, this applies to all listed.
i. "The word of Hashem which was to Tzefanyah Ben Kushi Ben Gedalyah" - he and his father must have been tzadikim.
ii. If the deeds of one are degraded, this applies to all listed.
iii. "It was in the 7th month, Yishmael Ben Nesanyah Ben Elishama", he and his father are evil.
(d) (Rav Nachman): Malaki is Mordechai; he is called Malaki, because he was 2nd to the king.
(e) Question (Beraisa): Baruch Ben Neriyah, Serayah Ben Ma'asiyah, Daniel, Mordechai, Bilshan, Chagi, Zecharyah and Malaki, all prophesized in the 2nd year of Daryavesh - refutation!.
(f) (Beraisa): R. Yehoshua Ben Karcha says, Malaki is Ezra; Chachamim say, Malaki is his name.
(g) (Rav Nachman): It appears as the one who says that he is Ezra, since it says in the prophecy of Malaki, "Yehuda was traitorous, and an abomination was done in Yisrael and in Yerushalayim, for Yehuda has desecrated the sanctity of Hashem that he loved, and has had relations with the daughter of a foreign god.
1. Ezra is the one who separated (men from their) foreign wives, as it says "And Shechanyah Ben Yechi'el from the sons of Eilam answered, and said to Ezra, we have transgressed against our Lord, and returned foreign women.
(a) (Beraisa): There were 4 exceedingly beautiful women in the world: Sarah, Avigayil, Rachav and Esther.
1. The opinion that says that Esther was green will substitute Vashti for Esther.
(b) (Beraisa): Rachav incited with her name, Ya'el with her voice, Avigayil with her mention, Michal Bas Shaul with her seeing.
1. (R. Yitzchak): Anyone who says "Rachav, Rachav" will immediately have an emission.
2. (Rav Nachman): I can say it and it won't affect me.
3. (R. Yitzchak): I was referring to those that know and recognize her.
(a) "And Mordechai knew everything that happened" (Rav): That Haman rose above Achashverosh.
1. (Shmuel): The higher king overpowered the lower king (a euphemism for the opposite).
(b) Question: "*Vatischalchal* the queen" - what is Vatischalchal?
(c) Answer#1 (Rav): She became a Nidah.
(d) Answer#2 (R. Yirmiyah): She needed to go to the bathroom.
(e) "And Esther called to Hasach" (Rav): Hasach is Daniel; he is called Hasach, because *Chatchuhu* (they cut him) from his greatness.
(f) (Shmuel): Because all royal matters *Nichtachin* (are executed) through him.
(g) "To know what is this and on what is this" (R. Yitzchak): She sent to Mordechai: Perhaps Yisrael has transgressed the 5 Chumashim, that is says in them, "they are written (the tablets) from this (side) and from this they are written".
(h) "They told to Mordechai the word of Esther" - but Hasach didn't - we see from here, one does not return when the mission fails.
(i) "Improperly" (R. Aba): Until now, she was forced to go to the king; now, she would go willingly.
(j) "And as I am lost, I am lost" - As I am lost from father's house, I am lost to you.
(k) "*v'Ya'avor* Mordechai" (Rav): *He'evir" (he passed) the 1st day of Pesach in a fast.
1. (Shmuel): *Avar* (he crossed) a stream (to gather Jews to fast).
(l) Question: "And it was on the 3rd day, Esther donned royalty" - it should say royal clothing!
i. Answer: Rather, Ruach ha'Kodesh clothed her; it says here, "she donned"; it says there, "A spirit clothed Amasai".
(a) (R. Elazar): The blessing of a commoner should not be light in your eyes: 2 greats of the generation were blessed by commoners, and the blessings were fulfilled! - Dovid and Daniel.
1. Aronah blessed Dovid, as it says, "And Aronah said to the king ..."
2. Daniel, who was blessed by Daryavesh, as it says "Your Lord that you always serve will save you".
(b) (R. Elazar): The curse of a commoner should not be light in your eyes - Avimelech cursed Sarah, "this is to you a covering of the eyes", and it was fulfilled in her seed, "And when Yitzchak grew old, his eyes weakened."
(c) (R. Elazar): See, Hashem's way is unlike that of flesh and blood. A person sets a pot (on an oven), then fills it with water; Hashem fills it with water and then sets it down, to fulfill what it says, "To his voice you give much water in Heaven".
(d) (R. Elazar): Whoever says something in the name of the one who said it brings redemption to the world, as it says, "And Esther told the king in the name of Mordechai."
(e) (R. Elazar): When a tzadik dies, he is lost to his generation. This is like a man that lost a jewel. Wherever it is, it is a jewel, it is only lost to the owner.
(f) (R. Elazar): When Haman saw Mordechai sitting in the gate of the king, he said, "all this is not worth to me" - as Rav Chisda, who said, (Mordechai) came with his Pruzbul (document), and Haman came with his Pruzbuti (he claimed that he had no money to pay his debt).

(g) (Rav Papa): (Mordechai) called him a slave that was sold for bread.
(h) "And all this is not worth to me" - this teaches that all his treasures were carved on his heart, and when he sees Mordechai sitting in the gate of the king, he said "And all this is not worth to me".
(i) (R. Elazar): In the future, Hashem will be a crown on the head of every tzadik, as it says, "On that day Hashem will be *l'Ateres (as a crown) Tzevi ... (ul'Tzefiras Tifarah)*".
1. What is *l'Ateres Tzevi ul'Tzefiras Tifarah*? To those who do *Tzivyono* (his will) *ul'Matzfin Tifarto* (and look forward to his glory).
2. Perhaps, to all? The verse teaches, "*l'Sheir Amo* (to the remnant of his nation)", to one who makes himself like *Shirayim* (leftovers).
3. "And to a spirit of law" - this is one who judges his *Yetzer* (desires).
4. "And to one who sits on the law" - one who judges a case to its utter truth.
5. "And to might" - one who overcomes his Yetzer.
6. "That return (from) war" - they debate in the war of Torah.
7. "To the gate" - these are Chachamim that are early and late in shuls and Beis Medrashes.
(j) The attribute of judgment said in front of Hashem, how are these different than these?
(k) Hashem: Yisrael engaged in Torah, the other nations didn't engage in Torah.
(l) Attribute of judgment: These also stumbled in wine and beer, and were judged for Gehenom. (According to the text in Sanhedrin 111B, this was said by Hashem; unworthy Jewish judges were duly punished.)
1. *Paku* is a language of Gehenom, as it says, "This should not be for you *l'Fuka* (a pitfall)".
2. *Peliliyah* is a language of judges, as it says, "And he will give *b'Flilim* (according to judges)".
(a) "Esther stood in the inner courtyard of the palace." (R. Levi): When she reached the place where the idols are kept, Ruach ha'Kodesh departed from her.
(b) "Keli, Keli, why have you abandoned me" - do you judge unintended as intended, coerced as willing?
1. Perhaps, because I called Achashverosh a dog ("Save my soul from a sword, from a dog")?
2. She retracted, and called him a lion - "Save me from the mouth of the lion".
3. "When the king saw Esther" - (R. Yochanan): 3 angels came: 1 raised her neck, 1 stretched a string of Chesed over her, and 1 one stretched the scepter.
4. (R. Yirmiyah): The scepter was 2 Amos, and it stretched to 12; other opinions say 16; some say 24. A Beraisa says 60; Rabah Bar Ufron says 200.
i. Similarly, Paro's daughter's hand stretched to reach Moshe.
ii. Similarly, the teeth of the wicked elongate - "The teeth of the wicked *Shibarta* (you broke)" - (Reish Lakish): Read *Shirvavta* (you increased).
(c) Achashverosh: "Esther, what is your request? Up to *Chetzi* (half) the kingdom" - but not the whole kingdom, nor something which divides the kingdom, i.e. building the Temple.
(a) Answer#1 (R. Eliezer): She set a trap for him.
(b) Answer#2 (R. Yehoshua): "If your enemy is hungry, feed him bread".
(c) Answer#3 (R. Meir): So he shouldn't take counsel and rebel.
(d) Answer#4 (R. Yehuda): So they shouldn't know that she is Jewish.
(e) Answer#5 (R. Nechemyah): So Yisrael should not say, we have a sister in the palace, and slacken from davening.
(f) Answer#6 (R. Yosi): So Haman should be always available to her (to make him stumble).
(g) Answer#7 (R. Shimon Ben Menasya): Perhaps Hashem will feel (my disgrace) and do a miracle for us.
(h) Answer#8 (R. Yehoshua Ben Karcha): I will cause both of us to be killed.
(i) Answer#9 (R. Gamliel): Achashverosh is wishy-washy (if he agrees to kill Haman, and does not do so immediately, he may change his mind); we still need the coming answer.
(j) Answer#10 (R. Eliezer ha'Mod'ai): So the king and ministers should envy Haman.
(k) Answer#11 (Raba): "Before a fall, pride".
(l) Answer#12 (Abaye and Rava): "I will set their feasts with poison" (the wicked are punished through their feasts).
(m) Eliyahu told Rabah Bar Avuhah, Esther invited him for all these reasons given.
(a) "Haman told them of his honor, wealth, and many sons".
1. (Rav): Haman had 30 sons: 10 died, 10 were hung, and 10 begged for bread.
2. (Rabanan): 70 begged for bread.
3. (Rami Bar Aba): In all, he had 208, as the Gematria of "v'Rov".
i. Question: The Gematria is 214!
ii. Answer (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): "v'Rov" is written lacking a *Vov*, so its value is 208.
(b) "That night, the king's sleep was disturbed".
1. Opinion#1 (R. Tanchum): The "king" is Hashem.
2. Opinion#2 (Rabanan): The angels were also up (provoking Achashverosh to reward Mordechai, or requesting mercy).
3. Opinion#3 (Rava): Achashverosh's sleep was disturbed; why, suddenly did Esther invite Haman - perhaps they are plotting to kill me!
i. If so - why didn't anyone tell me? Perhaps -I neglected to reward someone for a favor, therefore, no one is telling me! Immediately, "the king asked to bring the chronicles".
(c) "And they were being read" - by themselves!
(d) "And it was found written" - Shimshai (the evil scribe) was erasing, and Gavri'el was writing.
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