POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Megilah 13
MEGILAH 11-13 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) EXPOUNDING NAMES
(a) Yehuda is culpable - Dovid didn't kill Shimi, and this
allowed Mordechai to be born, that provoked Haman.
2) THE SELECTION OF ESTHER
(b) Binyamin is culpable - Shaul did not kill Agag, and from
him came Haman.
(c) Answer#4 (R. Yochanan): He really comes from Binyamin -
he is called Yehudi, because he denied idolatry.
1. Anyone who denies idolatry is called Yehudi, as it
says, "There are these Yehudi men ..."
(d) R. Yehuda Ben Pazi, when he would start expounding
Chronicles, would say "All your words are one, and we
know how to expound them."
(e) "And his wife ha'Yehudiyah gave birth to Yered, the
father of Gedor; and Chever, the father of Socho; and
Yekusi'el, the father of Zenoach; and these are the sons
of Bisyah, the daughter of Paro, whom Mered took."
(f) Question: Why does it call her Yehudiyah?
(g) Answer: Because she denied idolatry, as it says, "Paro's
daughter went down to wash on the river".
1. R. Yochanan: She descended to cleanse herself from
the idolatry of her father's house.
(h) Question: "Gave birth to" - but she (only) raised
(i) Answer: This teaches, one who raises an orphan in his
house, is considered as if he fathered him.
(j) "Yered" is Moshe - he is called Yered because manna
*Yarad* (came down) to Yisrael in his days.
(k) He is called "Gedor" because *Gadar* (he fenced) the
breaches in Yisrael.
(l) He is called "Chever" because *Chiber* (he connected)
Israel to their father in Heaven.
(m) He is called "Shocho" because he was like a protecting
Sukkah to Yisrael.
(n) He is called "Yekusi'el" because *Kavu Yisrael la'Kel*
(Yisrael hoped to Hashem) in his day.
(o) He is called "Zano'ach" because *Hizniach* (he made
Yisrael abandon) their sins.
(p) "Father of, father of, father of" - A father in Torah, in
wisdom, and in prophecy.
(q) Question: "These are the sons of Bisyah, whom Mered took"
- but her husband's name is Kalev!
(r) Answer: Hashem said, let Kalev, who *Marad* (rebelled)
against the counsel of the spies, marry Bisyah, who
rebelled against the idolatry of her father's house.
(s) "That exiled from Yerushalayim" (Rava): (Mordechai)
willingly exiled himself.
(t) Question: "And he was raising Hadasah" - she is elsewhere
(u) Answer#1 (Beraisa - R. Meir): Her name is Esther; she is
called Hadasah, as Tzadikim are, as it says "And he
stands among the Hadasim".
1. Answer#2 (R. Yehuda): Her name is Hadasah; she is
called Esther, because *Masteres* (she hides) her
words, as it says, "Esther does not tell which is
(v) (Ben Azai): Esther was not tall, nor short, but average,
as a Hadasah.
2. Answer#3 (R. Nechemyah): Her name is Hadasah; she
is called Esther, because the nations called her as
*Istahar* (the moon).
(w) (R. Yehoshua Ben Karcha): Esther was green; a string of
Chesed was strung over her (that all considered her
(a) Question: "For she has no father or mother" - why must it
also say "When her father and mother died"?
(b) Answer (Rav Acha): When her mother became pregnant, her
father died; when she was born, her mother died.
(c) "When her father and mother died, Mordechai took her as a
Bas (daughter)" (Beraisa - R. Meir): Read it as *Bayis*
1. Similarly: "To the poor man is nothing, save one
small sheep that he bought, and it grew with him and
his sons together, it eats from his bread and drinks
from his cup and sleeps in his chest and was to him
as a Bas".
(d) "And the 7 young girls" (Rava): She would count the days
of the week through them.
2. Question: Because it sleeps in his chest, it is like
3. Answer: We must read it, as a Bayis (and so, too, by
(e) "And he (Hegai) changed her and her girls" (Opinion#1 -
Rav): He fed her food of Jews.
1. (Opinion#2 - Shmuel): He fed her flanks of swine.
(f) Question: "6 months with oil ha'Mor" - what is oil
2. (Opinion#3 - R. Yochanan): He fed her legumes, as it
says, "And the steward removed the royal food and
gave them legumes".
(g) Answer#1 (R. Chiya Bar Aba): Satchet.
1. Answer#2 (Rav Huna): Oil of olives which did not
reach 1/3 growth.
(h) "In the evening she comes, and in the morning she
returns" (R. Yochanan): From the detriment of that evil
one, we hear his praise, that he would not have relations
2. (Beraisa - R. Yehuda): *Anfekinon* is oil of olives
which did not grow 1/3.
3. The oil makes hair fall out, and softens the skin.
(i) "And Esther bore grace" (R. Elazar): This teaches that
everyone thought she was from his nation.
(j) "Esther was taken to the king Achashverosh to the palace
in the 10th month, Teves" - a month in which a body
enjoys (the warmth of) a body.
(k) "And the king loved Esther from all the women, and she
bore grace and Chesed in front of him more than all the
virgins" (Rav): If he desired the taste of a virgin, he
tasted it; the taste of a non-virgin, he tasted it.
(l) "And the king made a great party" - he made a party, and
she did not reveal to him; he pardoned taxes (in her
honor), and she did not reveal to him; he sent gifts (in
her honor), and she did not reveal to him.
(m) "And in the gathering of virgins a 2nd time" - he took
counsel with Mordechai, who told him that a woman only
envies the thigh of another woman - even so, she did not
reveal to him, as it says, "Esther did not reveal to him
(n) (R. Elazar): "His eyes will not diminish from (reward due
to) a tzadik - as a reward for Rachel's Tzni'us, Shaul
descended from her; as a reward for Shaul's Tzni'us,
Esther descended from him.
3) THE DECREE OF HAMAN
1. Question: What Tzni'us was in Rachel?
(o) Therefore, Rachel merited that Shaul should descend from
2. "Yakov told Rachel that he is her father's brother.
3. Question: Really, he is the son of her father's
4. Answer: This was the conversation: Yakov: Marry me.
5. Rachel: Yes, but father is a deceiver, you cannot
6. Yakov: I am his brother in deceit.
7. Rachel: Is that allowed for a tzadik?
8. Yakov: Yes - "With a pure one, be clear, with a
crooked one, be crooked". What is his trickery?
9. Rachel: I have an older sister, he will not marry me
off before her.
10. Yakov gave her signs. When the night come, Rachel
thought, my sister will be shamed; she gave the
signs to Leah.
11. This explains the verse, "In the morning, behold it
is Leah" - until now, it wasn't? Rather, because of
the signs which Rachel gave to Leah, Yakov did not
know until morning.
(p) Question: What Tzni'us was in Shaul?
(q) Answer: "He did not tell the matter of the kingship (to
his family) that Shmuel said." Through this, he merited
that Esther descend from him.
(r) R. Elazar: When Hashem apportions greatness to a person,
he apportions to his children and grandchildren for all
generations, as it says, "And he sat them (kings) forever
and elevated them".
(s) If he gets haughty, Hashem lowers him, as it says "If
they are bound in fetters".
(t) "And Esther fulfilled the instruction of Mordechai" (R.
Yirmiyah): She showed menstrual blood to the Chachamim.
(u) "As she used to when he raised her" (Rabah Bar Leima):
she would get up from the lap of Achashverosh, immerse,
and sit in the lap of Mordechai.
(v) "In those days, Mordechai was sitting in the gate of the
king; Bigsan and Seresh got angry" (R. Chiya Bar Aba) -
Hashem angered a master on his servants to do the will of
1. The tzadik was Yosef, as it says "And there with us,
a young Ivri".
(w) Hashem angered servants on their master to do the will of
a tzadik - Mordechai, as it says "and the matter became
known to Mordechai.
(x) (R. Yochanan): Bigsan and Seresh were 2 Tarsiyim and
spoke in Torsi - "from the day this one (Achashverosh)
came, our eyes have not seen sleep; let us put poison in
the bowl so he will die."
(y) They did not know that Mordechai was from the Sanhedrin
and knew the 70 languages.
(z) One said: "Our watches are not the same." "I will guard
both of them." This is as it says, "the matter was
investigated and found" - they were not at their watches.
(a) "After these things" (Rava): After Hashem created the
cure for the affliction.
1. This is as Reish Lakish said, Hashem does not strike
Yisrael unless he creates the cure first, as it
says, "In my healing Yisrael, the sin of Efrayim is
(b) "It was scornful in his eyes to strike Mordechai alone"
(Rava): At first, Mordechai alone; in the end, the nation
of Mordechai - Chachamim; in the end, all the Jews.
2. By the other nations, he first strikes, and then
creates the cure, as it says, "And Hashem will
plague Egypt, plague and cure".
(c) "He cast Pur, this is a Goral (lottery)" (Beraisa): Once
the lottery fell on the month of Adar, he was exceedingly
happy; he said, the lottery fell in the month that Moshe
1. He did not know that on the 7th of Adar he died, and
on the 7th of Adar he was born.
(d) "*Yaishno* (There is) one nation"(Rava): No one knows how
to speak Lashon Hara like Haman.
1. Haman: Let us destroy them.
(e) "And their laws are different from every nation" - they
do not eat from us, and don't marry our women nor our
2. Achashverosh: I am afraid of their Lord, that he
should not do to me as he did to to those before me.
3. Haman: "*Yashnu* (they are sleeping)" from the
4. Achashverosh: There are Rabbanim among them.
5. Haman: They are "One nation". Lest you will say I am
making a bald patch in your kingdom? "They are
scattered among the nations."
6. Lest you will say, there is benefit from them?
"*Mefurad* (scattered)", like a *Pereidah* (mule)
which bears no fruit.
7. Lest you will say, there is a province (full) of
them, "in all provinces of your kingdom".
(f) "And the laws of the king they do not keep" - all year
they avoid work, saying, Today is Shabbos, today is
(g) "It is not worth it to the king to leave them" - they eat
and drink and despise the kingdom; even if a fly falls in
the cup of one of them, he removes the fly and drinks; if
my master, the king, touches the cup of one of them, he
spills it on the ground and will not drink it.
(h) "If it is good to the king, it will be written to destroy
them, and 10,000 talents of silver ..." (Reish Lakish):
It was known in front of Hashem that Haman was going to
weigh Shekels (to destroy) Yisrael, therefore he preceded
their Shekels to his.
1. This is as the Mishnah: On the 1st of Adar we
announce about the Shekels and Kilayim (mixed
(i) "The king said to Haman, the money is given to you, and
the people, to do with it as is good in your eyes."