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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 12

MEGILAH 11-13 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) (Support - Beraisa): There was another year to Bavel; Daryavesh completed it.
(b) (Rava): Even Daniel made this miscalculation, as it says, "In the 1st year of his reign, I, Daniel, contemplated in Seforim"; the language "contemplated" implies that he had erred.
(c) Question: One verse said "to fulfill to Bavel; another said "from the destruction of Yerushalayim"!
(d) Answer (Rava): The 1st Pasuk predicted only a sanction (to build the Temple; it was later rescinded. The completion of the Temple was 70 years from the destruction).
1. We see this from the verse "So says Koresh, king of Persia, all the kingdoms of the world gave to me, Hashem, Lord of Heaven, and he appointed me to build for him a house in Yerushalayim."
(e) (Rav Nachman Bar Rav Chisda): It says, "So said Hashem to his Mashiach, to Koresh, that I have strengthened his right hand".
1. Koresh was not Mashiach! Rather, Hashem was complaining about Koresh to Mashiach - I said he should build my house and gather my exiles, and he said, "who will go up among you, will go".
(a) "The legion of Persia and Madai the officers"; and it says, "to the kings of Persia and Madai"!
1. (Rava): They agreed among themselves: If there will be kings among us, there will be officers among you, and vice versa.
(b) "In showing the wealth, the honor of his kingdom" - (R. Yosi Bar Chanina) this teaches that he wore the garments of the Kohanim!
1. Here it says "The honor, the glory of his greatness"; it says by the Kohanim's garments, "for honor and glory".
(c) "When these days finished": Rav and Shmuel argued.
1. One says that he was a clever king - he first drew close those from far away - he can always appease those close by.
2. The other says that he was foolish - he should have first drawn close those of his region, so if the others rebel, these will support him.
(d) Question (Students of R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Why were the haters of Yisrael (euphemism) of that generation worthy to be destroyed?
(e) (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Answer yourselves!
(f) Answer (Students): Because they benefited from the meal of that evil one (Achashverosh).
(g) Question (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): If so, only the Jews in Shushan should be killed, not in the whole world!
(h) (Students): How do you answer?
(i) Answer (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Because they bowed to the image (Nebuchadnetzar's idol).
(j) Question (Students): Did Hashem show partiality (why did he miraculously save them)?
(k) Answer (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): They only appeared to serve it; Hashem, also only appeared to decree their destruction, as it says, "He did not afflict from his heart".
(l) "In the courtyard, the garden of the house of the king". Rav and Shmuel argued: One said that whom was fit for the courtyard, was in the courtyard; those fit for the garden, in the garden; those fit for the house, in the house.
1. The other explains: He put everyone in the courtyard, but they did not fit; he put them all in the garden, but they did not fit, until he entered them into the house; the house contained them.
2. (Beraisa): He sat them in the courtyard and made 2 openings: one to the garden, and one to the house.
(m) "Chur, Karpas and Techeiles" - (Rav): "Chur" is *Chari Chari* (needlepoint, full of holes).
1. (Shmuel): He spread white (*Chiver*) silk for them.
2. (R. Yosi Bar Chanina): "Karpas" is Karim of Pasim (striped pillows).
(n) "On wheels of silver and marble pillars; beds of gold and silver" - (Beraisa): R. Yehuda says, one fitting for silver (sat on a bed of) silver; one fitting for gold, gold.
1. Question (R. Nechemyah): That would cause jealousy at the meal! Rather, the beds were of silver, the legs were of gold.
(o) "Bahat and marble" - (R. Asi): Stones that Mis*hot*etin (are an exertion to obtain) on their owners, as it says, "Crown jewels *Misnosesos* (cause difficulties) on his land".
(p) "Dar v'Sochares" (Rav): Dari Dari (around in rows - *Sechor*).
1. (Shmuel): There is a precious stone in the port cities, called Darah; he set it in the middle of the meal, and it illuminated for them as noon (*Sihara*).
2. (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): He called freedom (from taxes) for all merchants.
(q) "And the drinking was in golden vessels, and vessels from vessels *Shonim* (different)".
1. Question: Grammatically, the word should be Meshunim!
2. Answer (Rava): A voice from Heaven said, the first ones were destroyed because of vessels, and you are *Shonim* (repeating) with them!
(r) "And royal wine *Rav* (much)" (Rav): This teaches that each person was given wine *Rav* (older) than himself.
(s) "The drinking was k'Das (as the law)" - what is k'Das?
1. (Rav Chanan): Like the Torah, the eating exceeds the drinking (as we see by the flour offerings which accompany an animal, which exceed the wine offerings), so too at the evil one's party.
(t) "Without compulsion" (R. Elazar): Each person was given wine of his country (which does not inebriate him unwillingly).
(u) "To do as the will of each man and man" (Rava) - as the will of Mordechai and Haman.
1. We see that Mordechai is called *Ish* (a man) - "A Jewish man".
2. Haman is called "A man, oppressor and enemy".
(v) "Also Vashti the queen made a women's party in the palace".
1. Question: She should have made it in the women's house!
2. Answer (Rava): Both of them (she and Achashverosh) intended for sin, as people say, "He in big gourds, and his wife in small gourds".


(a) "On the 7th day, when the king's heart was merry with wine".
1. Question: Until now, it wasn't merry with wine?
2. Answer (Rava): The 7th day was Shabbos, that Yisrael eat and drink and begin with words of Torah and praises, but idolaters that eat and drink only begin with obscenities.
3. So at the evil one's party, these say that Persian women are beautiful, these say that Median women are beautiful.
4. Achashverosh: My vessel is neither, rather Babylonian - would you like to see her?
5. They answered: Yes - but she must be naked.
i. As a person treats others, Heaven treats him: we learn from here, Vashti the evil used to strip Jewish women of their clothing and make them work on Shabbos.
ii. This explains the verse, "After these matters, when King Achashverosh's anger abated, he remembered what she did and what was decreed upon her" - as she did, so was decreed upon her.
(b) Question: "Vashti refused" - but she was licentious, as it was taught, both intended for sin - why didn't she come?!
1. Answer: (R. Yosi Bar Chanina): This teaches that she became leprous.
2. (Beraisa): Gavri'el came and made a tail on her.
(c) Question: "And the king was very angry" - why was he so angry?
(d) Answer (Rava): She sent to him, "Stable boy of my father, my father would drink 1000 wines, and not get drunk; this one (you) get drunk with wine!"
1. Immediately, "his anger raged within him".
(e) "The king said to the Chachamim" these are Rabbanan.
(f) "That know the times" - that know how to make leap years and to fix the months.
(g) Achashverosh: Judge her for me!
1. The Rabbanan reasoned: If we tell him to kill her - tomorrow he will sober up, and punish us for convicting her.
2. We should tell him to pardon her - she is disgracing the kingdom!
(h) They replied: Since the Temple was destroyed and we were exiled from our land, counsel was taken from us and we do not know how to judge capital cases; go to Amon and Moav, who sit on their land like wine sitting on its dregs.
1. They answered him well, as it says, "Moav has been tranquil from his youth, sitting on his dregs, he was not poured from vessel to vessel, and did not go into exile, therefore he still has his reason/taste, and his scent has not gone."
(i) Immediately, "And the closest to him, Karshena, Shesar, Admasa, Tarshish".
1. (R. Levi): This entire verse refers to sacrifices.
i. "Karshena" - the angels asked Hashem, did they offer in front of you *Karim* Bnei *Shana* (yearling lambs), as Yisrael?
ii. "Shesar": Did they offer to you *Shtai Torim* (2 birds)?
iii. "Admasa": Did they build for you an altar of *Adamah* (earth)?
iv. "Tarshish": Did they serve in front of you with priestly garments, of which it says "Tarshish" (beryl), onyx and jasper?
v. "Meres": Did they mix blood (to prevent it from hardening) in front of you?
vi. "Marsena": Did they knead flour offerings in front of you?
vii. "Memuchan": Did they prepare a table in front of you?
(j) "And Memuchan said" (Beraisa): Memuchan is Haman - he is called Memuchan, because he is Muchan (prepared) for punishment.
1. (Rav Kahana): From here we see that the commoner jumps to the top.
(k) "That each man should rule in his house" (Rava) if not for the first letters, there would not have remained any remnant of the haters of (euphemism) Yisrael!
1. People said, what is he sending us - this is obvious, even a weaver is the officer in his house!
(l) "And the king appointed overseers" (Rav): What is the meaning of "Every sharp one will act wisely, and a fool will spreads foolishness"?
1. "Every sharp one acts wisely" is Dovid, of whom it says "His servants said to him, let them seek for my master, the king, a virgin girl"; whoever had a daughter, brought her.
2. "A fool spreads foolishness" is Achashverosh, as it says, "The king appointed overseers" - whoever had a daughter, hid her.
(m) Question: "There was a Jewish man in Shushan the capital ... of Binyamin" - if the verse is coming to give his lineage, it should give all his fathers until Binyamin! Why does it only list these?
(n) Answer (Beraisa): All those listed are called on Mordechai's name.
1. "Ben Ya'ir" - A son "she'He'ir" (illuminated) the eyes of Yisrael with his prayer.
2. "Ben Shimi" - A son whose prayer was heard from Hashem.
3. "Ben Kish" - that he knocked on the gates of mercy, and they opened for him.
(o) Question: He is called "Yehudi" - we see, he comes from Yehuda - and he is called "Yemini", to say, he comes from Binyamin!
(p) Answer#1 (Rav Nachman): Mordechai was crowned with nice names.
(q) Answer#2 (Rabah Bar Rav Huna): His father was from Binyamin, his mother was from Yehuda.
(r) Answer#3 (Rabanan): The tribes competed over him: Yehuda claimed responsibility for his birth, by not killing Shimi Ben Gera.
1. Benyamin takes credit, since he was born from me!
(s) (Rava): The congregation of Yisrael says oppositely: see what Yehuda did to me, how Binyamin paid me!
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