POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Megilah 11
MEGILAH 11-13 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) INTRODUCTIONS TO MEGILAS ESTHER
(a) Rav Dimi Bar Yitzchak began expounding the Megilah
thusly: "Because we are servants, and in our bondage we
did not abandon our Lord, and he stretched over us Chesed
in front of the kings of Persia" - in the days of Haman.
(b) R. Chanina Bar Papa began expounding the Megilah thusly:
"You made a man ride on our heads, we came in fire and
water": "in fire" - in the days of Nebuchadnetzar the
wicked; "in water" - in the days of Paro; "and you
brought us out to plenty" - in the days of Haman.
(c) R. Yochanan began expounding the Megilah thusly:
"Remember his Chesed and faithfulness to Beis Yisrael;
see, all ends of the land, the salvation of our Lord".
All ends of the land saw the salvation of our Lord in the
days of Mordechai and Esther.
(d) Reish Lakish began expounding the Megilah thusly: "As a
roaring lion and a hungry bear, an evil one rules over a
1. "A roaring lion" is Nebuchadnetzar the evil, on whom
it says "A lion rose from his thicket";
(e) Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak began expounding the Megilah
thusly: "A song of the steps: If not for Hashem that was
for us, let Yisrael say, if not for Hashem that was for
us when a man rose against us" - a man (Haman) and not a
2. "A hungry bear is Achashverosh, on whom it says "And
another animal, a second, like a bear"; Rav Yosef
taught, these are Persians, who eat and drink like a
bear, and are clothed with flesh like a bear, and
grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear.
3. "An evil one rules" is Haman.
4. "On a poor nation" is Yisrael, that are deficient in
5. R. Eliezer began expounding the Megilah thusly: "In
laziness the roofer melts, in lowliness of hands the
house leaks" - because of the laziness of Yisrael
that did not engage in Torah, the hater of (a
euphemism) Hashem became *Mach*;
i. *Mach* means poor, as it says, "If he is (too)
*Mach* to pay his pledged value".
ii. "Hamakreh" is Hashem, as it says, "Who makes a
roof with water in his upper stories".
(f) Rava began expounding the Megilah thusly: "In the
aggrandizing of Tzadikim the nation will rejoice, and in
the rule of an evil one the nation will sigh" - "in the
aggrandizing of Tzadikim" is Mordechai and Esther, as it
says, "The city of Shushan was celebrating and joyous";
"in the rule of an evil one the nation will sigh" is
Haman, as it says, "And the city of Shushan was
1. Rav Masne derived this from the verse "For who is a
great nation that has the Lord close to it".
2. Rav Ashi learned this from "Or has any god tried .."
(a) (Rav): "Vayehi in the days of Achashverosh" - ("Vayehi
may be read "Vai and Hai") woe and mourning; this is the
fulfillment of "You will sell yourselves to your enemies
3) 3 RULED OVER THE WORLD
(b) (Shmuel): I did not despise them and I did not abhor them
to destroy them": "I did not despise them" in the days of
the Yevanim; "I did not abhor them" in the days of
Nebuchadnetzar; "to destroy them" in the days of Haman;
"to annul my covenant with them" in the days of the
Persians; "for I am Hashem their Lord" in the days of Gog
1. (Beraisa): "I did not despise them" in the days of
the Babylonians, that I established for them Daniel,
Chananyah, Misha'el and Azarya; "I did not abhor
them" in the days of the Yevanim that I established
for them Shimon ha'Tzadik, Chashmonai and his sons,
and Matisyahu Kohen Gadol; "to destroy them" in the
days of Haman that I established for them Mordechai
and Esther; "to annul my covenant with them" in the
days of the Persians that I established for them the
house of Rebbi and Sages of the generations; "for I
am Hashem their Lord" in the time to come that no
nation or tongue will be able to rule over them.
(c) R. Levi began expounding from "If you will not drive out
the inhabitants of the land".
(d) R. Chiya began expounding from "It will be, as I intended
to do to them, I will do to you".
(e) "Achashverosh": Rav explained, "Achiv Shel Rosh" and Ben
Gilo Shel Rosh; he is the brother of Nebuchadnetzar the
evil, who was called Rosh, as it says "You are the head
1. He is the Ben Gilo of Rosh: He (Nebuchadnetzar)
killed, he (Achashverosh) wanted to kill; he made
desolate, he wanted to make desolate.
(f) Shmuel explained the name, Hushcharu (were blackened) the
faces of Yisrael, in his days, like the bottom of a pot.
i. "At the beginning of Achashverosh's reign, they
wrote accusation against the inhabitants of
Yehuda and Yerushalayim".
(g) R. Yochanan explained: anyone who recalled him said
"Ach" l'Rosho (had a headache).
(h) R. Chanina: All were made Rashin (poor) in his days, as
it says, "the king Achashverosh put a tax".
(i) "He is Achashverosh" - he is in his evilness from his
beginning to his end. Similarly:
1. "He is Esav" - he is in his evilness from his
beginning to his end.
(j) (Rav) "That rules" - he ruled by himself.
2. "He is Dasan and Aviram" - they are in their
evilness from their beginning to their end.
3. "He is King Achaz" - he is in his evilness from his
beginning to his end.
4. "Avram he is Avraham" - he is in his righteousness
from his beginning to his end.
5. "He is Aharon and Moshe" - they are in their
righteousness from their beginning to their end.
6. "Dovid he is the small one" - he is in his smallness
from his beginning to his end; just as in his
smallness he lowered himself in front of someone
greater than him in Torah, so in his kingship he
lowered himself in front of someone greater than him
1. Some explain this to his credit, there was no one
else as fitting as him to be king.
(k) "From Hodu until Kush": Rav And Shmuel argued:
2. Some explain this to his detriment, he was not
fitting to be king; he gave extra money, and became
1. One of them said that they are at opposite ends of
(l) Similarly: "He [King Shlomo] dominated the entire other
side of the river, from Tifsach until Azah";
2. The other said that they are next to each other;
just as he ruled over them, so he ruled from one end
of the world to the other end.
1. Rav And Shmuel argued; one of them said that they
are at opposite ends of the world.
(m) "7 and 20 and 100 provinces": (Rav Chisda) - first he
ruled over 7, then 20, in the end over 100.
2. The other said that they are next to each other;
just as he ruled over them, so he ruled over the
1. Question: If so, how will we explain "And the years
of Amram were 7 and 30 and 100 years"?
2. Answer: Here it is different - the verse was not
needed, since it says "from Hodu until Kush" (the
whole world); "7 and 20 and 100" were written for
(a) (Beraisa): 3 ruled over the world: Achav, Achashverosh
1. We know that Achav ruled over the world, for it says
"I swear by Hashem your Lord, if there is a people
or kingdom that my master has not sent there to seek
you ... (and he made them swear)"; if he did not
rule over them, how could he make them swear?
2. Nebuchadnetzar, as it says, "and the people and
kingdom which will not put its neck in the yoke of
the king of Bavel".
3. Achashverosh, as explained above.
(b) Question: Are there no more? Shlomo ruled over the world!
4) MISCALCULATIONS OF THE 70 YEARS OF EXILE
(c) Answer: He did not finish his reign (so he is not
1. This fits the opinion that once he was deposed, he
never resumed kingship.
(d) Question: Why isn't Sancheriv listed - it says, "Who
among all the gods of these lands saved their land from
2. Question: According to the opinion that he returned
to kingship, why is he not listed?
3. Answer: Shlomo's reign was different - he ruled over
higher beings and lower beings, as it says, "And
Shlomo sat on the throne of Hashem".
(e) Answer: He didn't conquer Yerushalayim.
(f) Question: There is Daryavesh - it says, "Daryavesh the
king wrote to all the peoples, nations, and languages
that dwell in all the land, there should be great peace
(g) Answer: He didn't rule over 7 nations - "It was good to
Daryavesh, he established his reign over 120 provinces".
(h) Question: There is Koresh - it says, "So says Koresh,
king of Persia, all the kingdoms of the world Hashem gave
(i) Answer: He was just aggrandizing himself (it was not
(a) "In those days *b'Shevet* ha'Melech (as the king sat)";
and it says later, "in the 3rd year of his reign".
(b) (Rava): "b'Shevet" means after *she'Nityashva* (was
settled) his mind.
1. He said, Belshatzar calculated and erred; I
calculated and did not err.
2. It says, "To the fulfillment of Bavel, 70 years I
will redeem you", and "to fulfill to the destruction
of Yerushalayim 70 years.
3. Belshatzar counted 45 years of Nebuchadnetzar, 23 of
Evil-Merodik, and 2 of his own reign, making 70; he
took out the vessels of the Temple and used them.
i. Question: How do we know that Nebuchadnetzar
reigned 45 years?
4. We have a tradition that Evil Merodik reigned 23
ii. It was taught: The exile from Yerushalayim was
in the 7th year, the 8th, the 18th, and the
iii. Some were exiled in the 7th year from
Nebuchadnetzar's conquest of Yehoyakim; this
was the 8th year of Nebuchadnetzar's reign.
iv. The exile of Tzidkiyahu (and most Jews) was in
the 18th year from Nebuchadnetzar's conquest of
Yehoyakim, which was the 19th year of
v. It was taught, in his 1st year, Nebuchadnetzar
conquered Ninveh; in his 2nd year, he conquered
vi. "In the 37th year of the exile of Yehoyakim,
Evil Merodik took Yehoyakim out of prison"; 37
and 8 make 45 years of Nebuchadnetzar.
5. Belshatzar took out the vessels because he saw that
we were not redeemed after 70 years.
6. This is why Daniel told him "You raised yourself
against the master of Heaven, and brought the
vessels of His house in front of you"; "On that
night was killed Belshatzar king of the
7. "Daryavesh the Mede received the kingship when he
was 62 years old".
8. Achashverosh: I will not err. The prophecy did not
say to the kingship of Bavel, but *to* Bavel, exile
9. Belshatzar erred by 8 years. After his mistake was 1
year of his reign, 5 of Daryavesh and Koresh, and 2
10. Once he saw that we were not redeemed after 70
years, he said, we will not be redeemed later. He
took out the vessels of the Temple; the Satan came,
danced among them, and killed Vashti.
11. Question: But his calculation was correct!
12. Answer: He erred - he should have calculated from
the destruction of Yerushalayim.
13. Question: He was only 11 years off; he did rule 11
more years (14 in all) - the Temple should have been
rebuilt in his day!
i. But it says "The building of the Temple in
Yerushalayim stopped" (and was not finished
until the 2nd year of the Daryavesh after
14. Answer (Rava): The years (in the above calculation)
were incomplete (and they were really only 68